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THEY CAN STILL SING 

They who feel ecstasy in early May 
When, rose against a periwinkle sky. 
The peach-trees blow; or those who thrill 
to lie 

Watching the pale bees of the Milky Way 
Swarm on an August night — they only 
know 

That the same soul which rapturously 

sings 

At Beauty's hand upon its pulsing 
strings 

Vibrates as surely to the stroke of woo. 
Yet only pity in their hearts they find 
For placid lives of still and limpid days 
Threaded like beads all of one shape and 
kind 

iAnd color, till at last the slight cord 

frays. 

They, having known thte wonder of the 
light, 

Though lost in tears, can still sing In the 

night. 

[Ruth M. Gordon in The Century, 
Magazine 



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capacity of reasonable ad:iption to the requirements 
of a changing -world. 

JE SUS : WAR OR PEACE r In the Light of 
Modern Criticism. By Walter Walsh. 7^X3, 
79 pp. Free Religions Movement. Is. 6d. n. 
An examination and in part a criticism of the 
Rev. A. T. Cadoux's " Jesus and Civil Govern- 
ment," published last year. In that work Mr. 
Cadoux examined closely the teaching of Christ 
about coercion, and concluded that our Lord does 
not support those who preach the full doctrine of 
non-resistance. Mr. Walsh's object is '* to retain 
the Jesus of the Gospel for world-peace according 
to the- consistent claim of pacifists," and to do so 
" by reading the Gospel story in the light of his- 
torical criticism." 

THE DIVINE LAW OF HUMAN BEING. Bv 

F. C. COXSTATU P P.v.fi .9«9 nx> JZ>-~ -JP 4 



THE 



ree 
tin, 



of Genesis, Exodus, Ezekiel and Hosea. 
It was not the Puritan Emerson that 
Nietzsche valued, but the almost daring indi- 
vidualist of the essay on Self-Reliance, the 
assertive Whig who wrote : — 

Whoso would be a man must be a non- 
conformist. He who would gather immortal palms 
must not be hindered by the name of goodness, 
but must explore if it be goodness. Nothing is 
at last sacred but the integrity of your own mind. 

And again : — 

No law can be sacred to me but that of my 
nature. Good and bad are but names very readily 
transferable to that or this ; the only right is 
what is after my constitution, the only wrong what 
is against it. 

Here Emerson and Nietzsche come together 
to a surprising extent. M. Michaud has 
collected some scores of Emerson's . brief, 
gnomic, self-assertive sayings, which he has 
no difficulty in linking up with similar re- 
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TIME AND WESTERN MAN 



Time and Western Man. By Wyndham 
Lewis. (Chatto and Windus. 21s. net.) 
The Enemy. A Review of Art and Literature. 
No. 2. Edited by Wyndham Lewis. (The 
Arthur Press. 3s. 6d. net.) 
Mr. Wyndham Lewis's volume — an i; essay " 
of close upon 500 pages — displays him com- 
prehensively and forcibly as a critic of ideas. 
The beginning of it is a reprint of the literary j 
and general criticism which he launched in the 
• first number of The Eiwwy. But that admir- 
able piece of destructive analysis, which has 
been already noticed here, is of less importance 
in the book than the new and much longer part 
that follows it, in which he examines what he 
calls the time-cult in contemporary thought. 
This, needless to say, has all the courage of 
his convictions. Mr. Lewis writes more 
vigorously than most philosophers, and is 
plainly in earnest with those he attacks. An 
impartial method would have to distinguish 
their positions more fully. But, free as 
he is with* them, he does not seem 
particularly unfair; and his position is none 
the worse for being outwardly, as he says, a 
narrow one, depending for its force on " a cer- 
tain illiberality." It is the protest or retort 
of an artist, on behalf of the visual intelligence, 
against a philosophy of time that has been 
hostile to the spatializing tendencies of the 
mind. It is a proof of Mr. Wyndham Lewis s 
critical sense, however, that he should think 
it well to examine general ideas, and in 
handling this .metaphysical one he is quite 
able to hold his Own with the professionals. 

To pit space and time against each other 
is not so very academic after all. We do it 
in all movement and whenever we measure a 
speed ; and whether the question is of an aero- 
plane covering 300 miles an hour or an atom 
moving 10,000 miles a second, the common 
impression is that, while space and time have 
both been defeated, time has also " anni- 
hilated " space. To-day there are not many 
values higher than speed. There are not 
many things more vigorous than advertise- 
ment, and the world of advertisements is, as- 
Mr. Lewis says, a one-day, sensationalist 
world. The cinema threads its time-string of 
momentary successions — in fact there is not , 
much need to emphasize our practical absorp-. 
tion with time. But the interest of this book 
is in the abundant proof it gives of the j 
dominance of the tim&-idea in the theoretic 
world as well. Evolution, of course, has been 
a time-doctrine, psychology largely a time- 
science, but philosophy had left time alone as 
much as it could. The first philosopher to 
take it seriously, Professor Alexander says, 
j was Bergson ; Professor Whitehead assigns 
him a representative status similar to Locke's. 
We may believe that in any case modern 
mathematical physics would have forced- an 



issue. One result is the amalgamation of 
space and time into space-time — in which time 
always gets the lead. So there is Professor 
Alexander's well-known dictum that time is 
the mind of space, and his affirmation that 
space, even to be spatial, must be temporal. 
Dr. Whitehead gives the same colour to his 
spatio-temporal unities as soon as he calls 
them " events." Time has come into its own 
with a vengeance hardly travestied by Miss 
Gertrude Stein : — 

There must be time. . . . This is die thing that 
is at present the most troubling and if there is the 
time that is at present the most troublesome the 
time-sense that is at present the most troubling is 
the thing that makes the present the most troubling. 
Except that, as Mr. Lewis adds, it is quite 
enjoyed. Most significant of all is the i; meet- 
ing of extremes " : realists and Crocean 
idealists uniting to conclude that reality is a 
history, a becoming. In its extreme form this 
implies not only that we are making history 
(which is also reality and philosophy), but 
that one day history will remake us : a destruc- 
tion of identities and upheaval of the dead 
which is barely compensated by Spengler*s 
assurance that " we ourselves are time."* Mr. 
Wyndham Lewis is naturally delighted that 
so self-revealing a writer as Spengler should 
deliver himself into his hand, and it need only 
be said that no one who reads his examination 
will easily accept the German theorist 
any more. Spengler s dithyrambic fatalism 
is a different thing from the natural, if 
too ^ innocent, excitement that Bergson 
inspired. For time has its attractions : 
a nearness to " inner sense " in some 
way, and so presumably to our psychic 
or essential selves ; the element of surprise 
and creative novelty with which it confronts us 
in the world at large; and sometimes an en- 
hanced sense of freedom through one's very 
personal experiences of it. But Mr. Lewis is 
justified in saying that Bergson treated the 
intellect very badly, however much he might 
appeal to feeling. In the end, so far as theory 
is concerned, the self has hardly been the 
gainer. Riddled already with criticisms, it 
turns now into a recurring pattern of appear- 
ances ; or, as Mr. Lewis puts it in a spirited 
little dialogue, into a point flitting round its 
picture-gallery of habits or " selves," or, better 
still, simply a way of telling the time there. 
*" Mr. 4.30 or Mr. Eleven o'clock is a truer 
name than Mr. Smith ? Certainly." 

Mr. Wyndham Lewis's criticism leads him 
at times into a decided paradox. For example, 
most readers who have approached Dr. White- 
head's " Science and the Modern World " 
with literary or artistic leanings have pro- 
bably been gratified by the chapter in which 
he turns to side with Wordsworth and Shelley 
against the " unbelievable " abstractness of 
the older scientific philosophy. But Mr. Lewis 
is never more distrustful of time-philosophers 
than when they bring a gift, as here. Science 
turns to the Romantic Movement ! That alone 



is suspicious to a classical mind. But there 
is worse behind, which is that the philosopher 
is merely performing a trick. Jn handing 
back colour and sound and beauty to Nature 
he is doing something entirely superfluous, 
for the poets — Coleridge, possibly, excepted — 
have never believed that these qualities were 
not hers ; and what he really has designs upon 

is the stability of objects and the supremacy 
of the mind : — 

It cannot be enough insisted upon that a pro- 
blem exists tor everybody in this transformation 
of '•science*' of which they seem totally unaware. 
The " science " that to-day mixes the '* secondary 
qualities*" into the external world i.s the same 
science that i^ mixing Time into it — '•saturating*' 
it with Time, as Alexander says. Everything which 
contributed to the isolation of " mind " as con- 
trasted with •'matter,*' or that tended to show 
"matter" to be a creation of "mind."' has been 
put back where it looks as though it is. Mind has. 
in short, been moved into what was matter " 
idr the man-of-science of Shelley's day ; and 
" matter,*' on its side, has been removed into 
another dimension, and quite out of sight and out 
of roach ; where, with Alexander, as " space- 
time "' it becomes ;i sort of god. And the philo- 
sophy that presides at these various transformations 
has for its watchword something like Don:n with ' 
matter ! and i.s consistently understood to be attack- 
ing the position of " materialism." It is highly im- 
portant to understand the ins and outs of these 
significant arrangements. 

We may disbelieve in a plot, but there is 
some force in Mr. Lewis's dialectical subtlety; 
and his paradox, he would say, is simply the 
paradox of " things themselves. Nothing, he 
thinks, is more needed to give a sense of reality 
in nature than it- solidity, its sheer "" dead- 
ness." apart from colours or smells ; yet i 
nothing seems more demonstrably unreal than 
that concreteness. This then, we must con- 
clude, is why it is emphasized by a critic with 
such marked affinities to Berkeley as Mr. 
Lewis, while an *" enlightened materialist " like 
Dr. Whitehead wishes it away. From a com- 
mon-sense point of view, Mr. Lewis's most 
effective criticism is directed against Mr. 
Russell's theory of .sensa, and the difference 
between his own position and the other is 
tellingly put there. Each, as he admits, might 
be called a philosophy of the eye; but the 
" Philosophy of flux '* isolates that sense while 
his does not. 

An abdication of the mind, a feeling that j 
time is more real than we are, a surrender to 
millennial dream-vistas, which would make us 
the inferiors of every stage to come — these are 
the kind of enervations which Mr. Lewis sus- 
pects of issuing out of the time-philosophy into 
common thought. Whether they do so affect 
it is extremely hard to say. But we may say. 
perhaps, that the " time-philosophy " is 
hardly one to put a brake upon a restless age; 
and, again, that some forms of it certainly 
seem reflected in the autobiographic or auto- 
matic tendencies, the flotsam and jetsam of 
consciousness, that are prominent in eontem- j 
porary literature and are examined by Mr. 



Lewis in the first part of his book. When be ) 
comes to ultimate ideals he very naturally re- ( 
jects a time-God as conceived in Professor 
Alexander's system:* a conception in which 
God as actual never possesses deity, and thing 
literally "never is, but always to be, blest." 
But not less decidedly does he shrink from the | 
God of personal and mystical experience. 
" God is for us something to think, not feel.'' 
He is thus in the distinctly unusual position 
of accepting a God of philosophy and refusing 
— as something too overwhelming to CO-exist 
with the sense of his own reality — the God of 
experience ; and there is a decided piquancy 
in his approval of the " high and nobly- 
ordered pagan universe " which he finds in 
contemporary C atholic philosophers. 

It is a reminder that we are dealing with an 
individual point of view, which Mr. Lewis 
promises to develop in a coming volume. Yet j 
it is representative besides, as here: — 

. . . much as he [Bergson] enjoys the " indis- 
tinct," the *' qualitative," the misty, sensational 
and ecstatic, very much more do we value the dis- 
tinct, the geometric, the universal, non-qualitied 
— the clear and the light, the un-sensational. To 
the trance of music with its obsession of Time, with 
its inalienable emotional urgency and visceral agita- 
tion, we prefer what Bergson calls " obsession of 
Space.*' If the painter's heaven of exterior forms 
is what above ail delights you. then the philosophy 
of Time, with its declared enmity for M spatial- 
izing "' mankind, will, if you understand it. please 
you as littjij as it does me. You will prefer the 
world of Greek philosophy, the pagan exteriorality. 
to th<^ world o!" music, or to the time-mathematics, 
or mathematics of events or " durations.'* the mathe- ' 
matics of motion, which is temperamentally asso- 
dated with that 

It seems perhaps less than fair to music. But it 
define! the issue fairly. This is a question of 
preference or convenience between two per- 
spectives. The case, speaking philosophically, 
is not proved; but Mr. Lewis has subjected a 
good deal of speculation to a damaging in- 
quiry. The philosophy of space-time, in one 
form or another, remains an appropriate 
interpretation of recent science, though it 
is so intimately allied to the " instru- 
ments of research " at this epoch that 
it risks being superseded by those of 
another. Mr. Lewis, at all events, 
suggests a rational ideal which is timeless. 
But in a sense the value of his book is inde- 
pendent of conclusions. Its merit is to have 
singled out a vital idea and presented it with 
that kind of power which makes you wonder 
why no one has seen it so before. Criticism 
which combines precision with such a widely 
human reference is rare. Its decisiveness 
shows that the whole of an intelligence is" in 
play, so organized that it can strike into 
diverse fields and really communicate itself 
as a " system." 




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MUttlb ox „ mju% JUANOOW 

Translated from the French by William Aspex- 
wall Bradley. SiXSf, vii.-j-185 pp. Geoffrey 
Bles. 7s. 6d. n. 
See Review, p. 62 7. 

MUSIC AND THE GRAMOPHONE, and Some 
Masterpiece Recordings. A Collection of His- 
torical, Biographical, and Analytical Notes, and 
Data of a generally interesting Nature, concerr' 
ing Musical Works of Importance completely 
corded for the Gramophone. Compiled by H. L. 
Wilson. 8£X5£, 288 pp. Allen and Unwin. 
7s. 6d. n. 

Eighty-nine works, ranging from Bach to the 
present day, come under review in this book. Mr. 
Wilson (who writes his preface from Hong-kong) is, 
as he himself says on the title-page, a compiler, and 
he gives us comparatively very little of his own ; 
but he has obviously read widely among books by 
all sorts of people. He casts his net, indeed, with- 
out much discrimination: why need we, for 
example, worry, with Mr. W. F. Apthorp, about 
the exact technical nickname to be fastened on the 
opening bars of the " Unfinished Symphony," or, 
with Mr. Walter Damrosch, about the exact psycho- 
logical significance of nearly every bar of 
" Egmont t And why so much hospitality to the 
real nonsense which has, in ancient as well as 
modern times, been perpetrated by perversely in- 
genious folk who will not at any price let music 
speak for itself ? But in spite of these occasional 
pages, and some inconsistencies of method plus a 
good deal of irritatingly misprinted German, M l 
Wilson has done a capital service to gramophone- 
users : the great bulk of what lie has compiled is 
to the point and (to quote from the title-page) of 
a generally interesting nature, and there can be 
no doubt that all fine music — and Mr. Wilson has 
no dealings with any other kind — makes all the 
more intimate appeal when listened to with intel- 
ligence instead of with a merely vague emotion. 

THE ART AND SCIENCE OF THE GRAMO- 
PHONE. By Harry A. Gaydon. 7£X5|, 172 
pp. Dunlop and Co., 1 and 2, Whitfield-street, 
E.C.2. 3s. 

This is the most substantial book yet published 
on the science of gramophone construction. Its 
literary weakness can be excused as the writer 
makes* his meaning quite clear and untechnical, 
and evidently has much practical acquainta^ 
with his subject. He has theories on how t> 
and present accomplishments of the ma*- 
be made to lead to future develr 
-ays, u . The gramophone is in f*- 

^reational user will find fr 
^oblems buch as w' 
veather "-^ Tr 



THE STORY OF MUSIC. 



"White. 
7s. Gel. 



Music and Its Story. By R. T 
(Cambridge University Press, 
net.) 

In Mr. Galsworthy's novel "The While 
Monkey " Michael Mont, who is a warm- 
hearted but clear-sighted young man, says to 
his wife : — 

D'you know, only 150,000 people in this country j 
have' ever heard a Beethoven symphony ? How 
many, do yea suppose, think old B. a back num- j 
her F 5,000 perhaps out o£ 42,000,000. How s j 
that for emancipation ? 

It is true; the figures seem about right; yet we 1 
are getting on. Here is a book from the j 
Cambridge Press which will hardly do lor I 
the 5,000 elect souls who are completely 
emancipated, but will meet the needs of a 
considerable number of the remaining 145,000 
people who have some acquaintance with j 
music, and may eYen find a few eager readers 
among- the half million of listeners who, the 
writer tells us, listened in on one evening of i 
last year to Beethoven's Seventh Symphony, j 
For this is the concise history of music (180 
pages of large type, including several appen- 
dices) by means of which the amateur who g j 
has a gramophone and a nodding acquaint- ? 
ance ^with musical notation can reconstruct - 
for himself the whole development of the ar' 3 
from a primitive three-note tune to a ton( avf 
poem by Strauss. of 
If the title " The Growth of Music " hau* 
mot already been appropriated it would hav^ 
been suitable to ± u 

entitk 
anoth 
sh"* 
sbt. 
rev it 





aaofUgy oiania abeirnt 

in mysterium. 

There remain two significant papers by 
Mr. Clutton-Brock, one dealing with spiritual 
experience and the other with the interaction 
of spirit and matter. The essays previously- 
described show the reformer, the man of 
science, and the theologian pleading and seek- 
ing for truth and righteousness. Mr. Clutton- 
Brock's work reveals primarily the artist 
seeking God through beauty. Yet without his 
contribution the book would have been 
manifestly incomplete. As he truly says : 
" Implied in the Christian faith, but not yet 
clearly expressed, is the doctrine that we 
must discipline ourselves to find beauty if 
it is not to lead us and lose us in the wilder- 
ness." The aim of religion is to free us from 
loneliness and despair. It ought to make 
us aware of " a universe in which there are 
not merely things and processes and functions, 
but everywhere persons answering to our- 
selves." If we shrink from beauty we shall 
shrink from the fullness of the peace of God ; 
we shall be afraid to be touched and fired by 
a reality not ourselves ; and though we pre- 
tend to believe in a Trinity we shall " split 
up the full idea of God into two," God and 
Lucifer, " because we despair and are afraid 
of the uttermost beauty and delight." It 
may be objected that by following the im- 
plication of such thought we may quickly 
reach pagan nature -worship ; and the danger 
is not remote, as the poets, from whom Mr. 
?lutton-Brock freely quotes, have shown. 
r $ut he is right in contending that religious 
listrust of beauty is a form of Manichseism, 
he heresy which " splits men into medio - 
•ities and wild poets." " At the height of 
J ."ritual experience we always look up in 
^der to heaven while the music peals, and 
i >ms to us that all must hear it." 

Yfl; have tried to ; - - 1 " 
it A 

ml 



. CuatMi by Hilda ANDREWS, with a Fore- 
word bv Sir Richard Terry. 8x5}, xili. -j- 4 1 
pp. Milford. 3e. Bd. n. 
Sec Review, p. 178. 

THE SPIRIT OF MUSIC: How to find it and 
how to share it. By Edward Dickinson. 
7| X5i, xx.-j-218 pp. Scribners. 7s. 6d. n. 
In America, as in England, it has been found 
that many more persona than were suspected a 
generation ago are prepared to take a serious in- 
terest, in music, if suitable guidance, other than 
technical instruction, can be given them in the 
early stages of their artistic careers. To meet their 
requirements musicians now teach <: musical appre- 
ciation," which in practice means formal analysis, 
some musical history, and biographical details about 
composers. Not unnaturally it is sometimes found 
tli at as the student grasps the substance the spirit 
flies away ; a barren knowledge of facts takes the 
place of uncritical but healthy enjoyment. Interest 
in and love for art are not by nature incompatible, 
but while they are in the growing stages they may 
get in each other's way. This book is a warning 
addressed to teachers, musicians, and critics not to 
offer mere facts to those who seek the complete 
experience of musical enjoyment. The plea is 
timely, and it is supported by a good deal of semi- 
philosophic argument and a wide range of critical 
reading. But there is much unnecessary repetition 
and the writing is often too vague and facile for 
the big problems of aesthetics involved, which want 
thinking out further if inconsistency is to be 
avoided. 

Thus 1 , the use of visual imagery, which has been 
found by psychological experiment to be a con- 
siderable factor hi musical experience, is forbidden 
rather brusquely as an element of enjoyment on 
page 72, while on page 74 the reader is told that 
" everything that quickens the sense of beauty, 
that helps to form the habit of looking for beauty, 
that makes the senses more delicate," is an aid. 
This indeed is tho main theme of the book and is 
worked out from a text of Walt Whitman: " Music 
is that which awakes from you when you are 
reminded by the instruments."- Again, though he 
repudiates the theory of art which divorces it from 
life, the author shrinks from probing the problem 
of personality — " Wo need not try to enter this 
dim region "—and the handling of the psycho- 
logical side of his problems is loose. None the 
less the book is written by one who has grown wist; 
with long experience, who says many wise things 
and quotes many wise sayings. It cannot pre- 
tend to be a " Primer of Practical Method in the 
Love of Music " — a substitute for the text-books 
which is yet to be written, but Mr. Dickinson makes 
a few recommendations. To artists he says : Cul- 
tivate your whole personality, be either an athlete 
or dancer to keep a healthy balance between mind 
and body, nourish, your imagination on poetry, im- 
provise (never mind how badly) for refreshment", 
and attend to your general culture. To teachers 
he allows the use both of suggestion and of asso- 
ciations in imparting their own aesthetic experiences 
to their pupils. 

SINGERS' DIFFICULTIES. How to overcome 
them. By Kate Emll-Beiixke. 7JX6J, vii.-f, 
187 pp. Casscll. 7s. 6d. n. 
Miss Emil-Behnke is the daugM— ~ e '* 



too 



THE 1 




New Books and Reprints. 



AGRICULTURE. 

REPORT OX FRUIT MARKETING IX ENG- 
LAXD AN D WALES. 9| X 6J, 152 pp. H.M. 
Stationery Office. 6d. n. 

This report was summarized in The Times of 
March 28. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 

HUMAN NATURE. By G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S. 
6|X41, 48 pp. Watts. 2s. n. 
In the Conway Memorial Lecture delivered at 
South Place Institute on March 17. Professor Elliot 
Smith outlined the views propounded by Mr. W. J. 
Perry (with whom he is in agreement) that Hesiod's 
story of the former Golden Age of Peace and Happi- 
ness is essentially true. He cites numerous instances 
of so-called savage races (who have been unspoiled 
by contact with warlike tribes) to whom stealing, 
striking their fellows, or saying anything that is 
untrue are equally inconceivable. Having no pro- 
perty, such people are free from the temptations 
of greed and envy. For it is to property, on this 
showing, that the fall of man is due. The invention 
of agriculture heralded the beginnings of property 
and the evils of civilization followed in its train 
[(including polygamy, for the savage in this ideal 
state is monogamous). Dr. Elliot Smith is dealing 
with an anthropological theory (though of great . 
, significance to sociology), and he is careful not to 
j draw from it support for any views that man by| 
I renouncing his civilization can regain his lost I. 
^paradise. \ 

We regret that in an extract from Mr. C. R. 
Enock's " The Etymon," noticed here on April 11. 
the word " mute " was written in error for " brute " 
in the sentence " language did not evolve from brute 
cries or ejaculations." 

ARCHAEOLOGY. 
^ T 'T?NITURE : A History of Greek, 
n Furniture. By Gisela 
*->di v bv At rfp 




.uacMuun on V Some Kipling Origins, I. The Irish 
Soldier," verses, notes, news. &c. 
THE CHINESE STUDENT. A Beview of the 
Central Union of Chinese Students in Great 
Britain and Ireland. Inaugural Number. 
92x7:1. 45 pp. The L T nion, 27, Woodlands- 
crescent. N.W.I 1. Is. 6d. 

This review* is the organ of the Chinese Students' 
Laiion in this country and is published to promote 
the union's ends, as a channel for exchanging 
Eastern and Western knowledge and culture, and 
to interpret Young China to the West. There are 
some literary articles by English writers, political 
articles, of not too extreme a kind, by Chinese 
writers, and notes and news of the union in various 
university centres. 

BRIGHTER BIOCHEMISTRY. Beinf th* m«- 



* 

The theory is a theory of t he nature and 
functions of money. It is thus a necessary 
preliminary to, but does not include, an J 
explanation of the fluctuations in the pur- ! • 
chasing power of money, which is the chief 
interest of contemporary monetary theory. 
Before the war the popular exposition of the 
nature and function of money took some 
such form as this : — The use of money arose j 
out of the practice of exchange ; one com- 
modity, gold, emerged from the mass of j I 
commodities as the most convenient medium 
by a sort of survival of the fittest, but any 
clearly defined, easily handled, and generally i 
acceptable medium would serve ; custom or 
law would give the money commodity the 
necessary prestige, but nothing was really . 
satisfactory unless its supply was controlled 
more or less closely by its cost of production ; J 
paper money of various kinds served for most 
exchange transactions, but these were satis- 
factory only if they represented the money 
commodity and were ultimately convertible 
into it. This theory Knapp calls Metallism, 
and opposes to it his State Theory. Admitting 
that historically the unit of value arose as a 
certain weight of metal, lie insists that it is 
such no longer, but a legal concept, de- 
fined no longer by reference to the form 
or content of the currency used, but 
formulated by authority and defined histori- 
cally by reference to a previous unit of value. 
Thus, for example, the pound sterling is still 
the unit of value in this country, although 
the gold sovereign ceased to circulate and ^ 
sterling lost any fixed relation to gold early 
in the war ; a loan of a hundred pounds before 
the war does not entitle the lender to recover 
now gold to the amount of a hundred sove- 
reigns, but only to recover a hundred pounds 
sterling. There are three stages in the develop- 
ment of money — first, a commodity is used as 
medium of exchange, and is measured by 
weight ; secondly, a definite form is given to 
the commodity by authority, and it is now 
measured, not by weight, but by counting ; 
thirdly, the possibility of creating money by 
authority is recognized, and the necessity 
for a commodity basis disappear.-* . 'This 
mark of money, that it takes its essential 
characteristic from a proclamation by 
authority, Knapp describes as % * Chartality " ; 
and he defines money as " Chart al means of 
payment." 

There are, however, other means of pay- 
ment; for example, the setting-off of debts 
against one another through a bank. Knapp' s 
analysis of this possibility is similar to Mr. 
Hawtrey's case of " Credit without Money," 
operated by a "Dealer in Debts," such as a 
bank. The characteristic of money that 
distinguishes it from other means of payment 
is that the State accepts it in settlement of 
obligations to itself, and is therefore bound to 



authorize it as full settlement of debts due 
to subjects of the State. There must be one . 
form of money with final validity, i.e., which I 
cannot be presented for conversion into f 
another form ; this is valuta . There may be, ] 
and usually are, other forms recognized and 1 
accepted by the State ; these are accessory. 

If money is* the creation of authority and 
inconvertible paper money not an unnatural 
exception but the crucial instance, how is it 
that the gold standard was almost universal 
before the war, when Knapp worked out his 
theories ? His answer is that the gold t 
standard facilitated the maintenance of I 
stable exchange on the commercial ly I 
strongest nations, and for this reason/ 
alone came to be adopted. Had Eng- 
land, the most important commercial nation, 
adopted the silver instead of the gold standard, 
the silver standard would have become 
general. Exchange rates (" inter-valutary 
exchange ") have nothing to do wit h mint- 
pars ; they depend on the international trade 
iDalance, but are operated on by the policy 
of Governments, which make it an object 
to prevent any wide fluctuations, using the 
discount rate and other measures to create 
a compensating demand for their own 
currency when it depreciates in terms of 
another. 

It is impossible in a short review to do more 
than suggest the novelty of Knapp's approach 
to his subject, or even to illustrate the fine 
discrimination and logical thoroughness with 
which he elaborates his theory. Many of 
his points are implicit in the older treatment 
of the subject, and his originality is rather 
exaggerated by the completely new set of 
technical terms. But by making his points 
explicit and fitting them into a logically 
complete system he does put a new aspect 
upon money. His interest is in theoiy, and 
he approaches monetary practice purely as 
an observer ; but it is inevitable that the 
ordinary reader should test his theory by 
its practical consequences. Judged by this 
test, its importance in the explanation of the 
nature of money is abundantly established ; 
for the war-tune and post-war monetary 



Z.THE ORDER of PEACE ^ 
JL C^AND GOOD VIL^ ^ 
By REV. CHARLES F. DOLE 



We agree to deny ourselves, so far as possible, 
every expression of complaint, fault-finding, 
resentment, or bitterness. If we are fractious we 
will not show it. We will not complain at our 
circumstances, however meager, uncomfortable, or 
lonely they may be. We will not complain at the 
weather, or the state of our health. We will not 
answer back with anger, as much as by a look, 
even if we think ourselves treated with disrespect 
or injustice. We will bear it if we receive less of 
love, honor, or attention than we deserve. We 
will not stretch out our hands to demand more 
than we get. 

We will deny ourselves the desire to inflict 
punishment. Who is good enough or wise enough 
to punish othars ? We will not denounce anyone. 
We will give up the use of blame, even against 
the blameworthy. We will not combat other 
people's opinions or try to argue them down. If 
we can say nothing good of a neighbor, we will 
say nothing at all. We will make no one unhap- 
py if we can help it. We will not try to detect 
evil, or to attack it, or to utter it. We will have 
the least possible to do with it. We will hence- 
forth turn our forces in the directions of good. 
We will discover all the good there is in our con- 
ditions and our circumstances. We will count up 
the full value of the assets that belong to us, 
every item of good health that remains, all beau- 
tiful scenery, all memories of sunny days, all our 
comforts, every loyal friend. 





We will find out and appreciate whatever good 
there is in our friends, our neighbors, and our at- 
tendants. We will try to understand their opin- 
ions, their politics, and their religion. We will 
say kind words to them whenever we can. We 
will tell them, if they care to hear, what our best 
thought is. We will be good-natured if they do 
not agree with us. 

We must sometimes, doubtless, speak out and 
say what we think! We cannot let evil be con- 
founded with good. We cannot stand by and see 
injustice done. We will speak then, if we must, 
to some purpose and do good when we speak. We 
will speak for the sake of others, and never De- 
cause we are hurt. We will never say disagree- 
able things for the satisfaction of saying them. 

We will assure ourselves that our temper is 
good, before we say what will pain our neighbor 
to hear; otherwise we will not dare to speak. We 
will use the voice and tone of sympathy, or if 
our voice is harsh, we will wait till we can recover 
its tone. We will approach our neighbor with 
good will, or we will let him alone. We will re- 
peat to ourselves certain good words, "Thy king- 
dom come; Thy will (that is, the good will) be 
done"; and if we cannot say these words in good 
faith, we will not dare to condemn anyone else. 

This is the Order of Peace and Good- Will. We 
aim to make the least possible trouble; we aim 10 
give no one needless pain; we aim to stop strife; 
we aim to overcome evil with good. We see no 
other way to kill evil. We are here to make the 
world happy. 

Send to Room 29, Steinert Hall, Boston, Mass., 
or the Association to Abolish War, 7 Wellington 
Terrace, Brookline, C. F. Dole, President, for 
free copies of this leaflet for distribution. 





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March 22, 192?. ] 



THE SERVANT OF INDIA. 



165 



economics and free trade of culture. " For which 
educative suggestion we may recommend the book to 
Englishmen who may be tempted to treat with dis- 
dain the painful straggle of an ancient people strug- 
gling towards unity and freedom and to Indians who 
think that the unity and freedom of this country can 
be achieved by mere gestures and challenges. 

M. ROTHNASWAMY. 



LENIN AND GANDHI. 

LENiiM AND GANDHI. By RENE FULOP- 
MlLLER. ( G. P. Putnam's Sons, London. ) 1927. 
9x5^. pp. 343. 21s. 
HUMANITY seems to be on the verge of a new era of 
evolution. The old order, social, economic and 
political, is showing signs of decay and fast falling 
down before the rise of new ideas of human values 
and relationships. The proverbially sleeping East, 
no less than the notoriously changing West, is affect- 
ed by the transition. A feature of the awakening in 
all lands where the new leaven has entered is the 
revolt of the dispossessed and the down-trodden 
against their oppressors. The disinherited on earth 
are no longer dumb or weak. They have found their 
voice and begun to demand with a force that is daily 
growing irresistible not only their freedom but also 
a due share of the good things of life to be enjoyed 
along with their erstwhile masters. The unrest is 
visible, outwardly, in two diverse directions. The 
toiling millions in the field and factory are striving 
for emancipation, as also the so-called backward 
races and nations groaning under the heels of their 
imperial masters. But the two big movements for 
freedom are linked at bottom and react on each other. 
For the victims in either case have to fight against 
. a common foe — -the monster of capitalist imperialism. 
This kinship of interests and suffering has also help- 
ed to foster, as never before, a feeling of mutual 
sympathy and fellowship among the workers all over 
the globe that provides the basis of the new world 
brotherhood that is in evolution. 

In so far as the influence of individual personali- 
ties count in the making of history, this new spirit 
of revolt and vision of world brotherhood could be 
traced to the life and teachings of- the two great 
leaders whom Rene Fulop-Miller has adopted as 
the subject of his study in the volume before us. 
Lenin and Gandhi are names to conjure with among 
millions in the modern world. They stand at the 
threshold of the twentieth century beckoning to 
humanity to listen to their voice. 

There is no room, nor reason, to go here at 
greater length into the differences in the teachings 
of the two masters. We wish only to point out here 
that, despit) these differences, which are, in some res- j 
pects, apparently, quite destructive of each other's ! 
contribution to humanity, both Lenin and Gandhi 
occupy a high place in modern history and are ac- 
claimed by millions as their saviour. This seeming 
paradox is easily explained if we look deeper into 
their hearts. Thus we find them related to each 
other by a common spiritual origin, a deep kinship 
born of their infinite love of humanity and desire to 
save mankind from suffering and want. Rene 
Fulop-Miller sees this kinship reflected often more 
clearly in their differences than in their obvious re- 
semblances in their lives. The author does not 
indeed aim at a reconciliation of the outward 
antagonism in the view-points of Lenin and Gandhi. 

For want of space we must pass over everything 
and come to the author's estimate of the two great 
leaders' lifework- The author thinks that in 
-'bringing about the Soviet Revolution Lenin com- 



pleted the historic process of the Europeanisa- 
tion of _ Russia. To guarantee permanence of the 
proletarian regime in a country like Russia 
with an overwhelming majority of peasants and 
rural workers, Lenin had to look for support to 
the latter and not rely solely on the urban workers 
or the westward-looking intelligent. He therefore 
extended the Marxian ideal so as to make it the 
concern of the whole country, not the city only 
but the villages as well. The alliance that he thus 
formed between the urban and rural workers bridged 
the gulf that till now severed the Asiatic peasantry 
of Russia from Western Europe In order to streng- 
then this alliance Lenin not only dealt with the 
villagers leniently, but also lost no time in trying to 
modernise them, educate them in the ways of western 
civilisation, use of modern machinery arid rational 
methods of labour so as to enable them to walk 
abreast of the urban workers and come into line 
with western labour in general. He wanted Russia to 
shed her mediaevalism in a moment and take a long 
leap so as to cover centuries of industrial backward- 
ness, with the aid of modern machinery and technical 
skill. The author holds that this policy of 'revolu- 
tionary jerk " of trying to convert an essentially 
agricultural country, steeped for centuries in mediasva- 
lism, suddenly into a highly developed industrial 
state only betrayed Lenin's romantic utopianism and 
is responsible for creating the economic confusion, 
a bastard culture containing ill-digested elements of 
medieevalism and modernism, and fantastic notions of 
' a mechanical utopia ' that prevail in Russia to-day. 
Comparing Lenin's attempt with Gandhi's advocacy 
of the spinning wheel to emancipate the Indian pea- 
santry, the author thinks that Gandhi is the more 
practical politician and that " through his emotion* 
he had a more correct understanding of the econo- 
mic laws of Marxism than Lenin in refusing to try 
to industrialise India by, artificial means " ( p. 225 ). 
He holds it to be quite wrong to judge Gandhi's 
movement by the standard of western capitalist cul- 
ture, that his hostility to the machine, even if it 
makes use of ethical and religious arguments, con- 
tains a core of sober truth from the national and 
economic point of view, that in the economic state 
of India to-day industrialisation might be more a 
curse than a blessing and that khadi movement is 
much more in harmony with the existing economic 
situation in the country. This testimony to the wis- 
dom of the khadi cult is particularly valuable to its 
advocates as the author has given it in no partisan 
spirit. The sections in the book dealing with this 
part of Gandhi's gospel are highly thought-provoking 
and well worth the perusal of those who have not 
been able to see eye to eye with the Mahatma. In 
dealing with the question the author has brought to 
bear on it his deep scholarship and experience of the 
fruits of European industrialism. He has thorough- 
ly examined the arguments of critics, cleared mis- 
apprehensions about Gandhi's views by well chosen 
extracts from his writings and also adduced the 
testimony of well known European socialists like 
Julius Braunthal on the soundness of Gandhi's posi- 
tion. 

Not less encouraging to the Gandhian school of 
thought is the verdict that is contained in the book 
on the Mahatma's gospel of non-violence. The author 
observes on p. 303 : "It is true that Gandhi's revolu- 
tion, like that of Lenin, has not yet succeeded m 
reaching its real goal English rule in India conti- 
nues as firmly established as ever before and it even 
seems that Gandhi's movement has for the moment 
receded into the background. But the practical and 
positive side of the sreat political experiment he ini- 
tiated must nevertheless not be ignored. He was 
the first to succeed in making the idea of abstinence 



THE SERVANT OF- INDIA 



f M<A,BeB :r 4X,,1928 



from violence one of the highest ideals of humanity, 
the practical policy of a nation . of hundreds of 
millions." Earlier in the volume we are told how 
Gandhi's revolution is unique in history as a revolu- 
tion of goodness and non-violence, aiming at nothing 
less than 'brahminising' the whole Indian nation, 
at spiritualising the tactics of war. The author 
writes : " It is true that in earlier times reformers, 
saints and founders of religions have preached 
passive resistance in face of evil, but; what dis- 
tinguishes Gandhi's movement from all those of 
the past is the fact that the Mahahna regards 
non-violence as a religious precept for indi- 
viduals, or for a small community, but makes i the 
basis of a political movement, and thus, for the first 
time in history, has transformed a u.oral perception 
into a practical political system. The author's appre- 
ciation of Gandhi's gospel gains force from his indict- 
ment of Lenin's ruthless methods of violence which 
he regards as "cursed by the mediaeval despotic 
spirit," marked by " a stuffy atmosphere in which 
freedom seems possible only through slavery and 
new rights through loss of rights." Hate, he avers, 
was Lenin's element. But that seems to be an ex- 
treme view, not quite fair to the liberator of Russia's 
millions, especially in the face of Lenin's own ex- 
pression of disgust that 'it was a hellishly hard task' 
to 'ruthlessly split skulls opeir and opposition to ail 
violence was his ultimate ideal. It is, indeed, a pro- 
foundly tragical thing, as the author observes, "that 
even in bis boldest dreams of a future classless 
world, without hate or oppression, Lenin could see no 
other way of attaining his end but naked brute force.' 
But that, we think,is a part of the tragedy that dogs 
the actions of all mortals in this earthly life. This 
particular tragical element in Lenin's destiny that 
the author refers to is, no doubt, absent in Gandhi's 
life. But here too we find a tragedy, though of a 
different order,— the tragedy, of a great soul's unre- 
alised aspirations. For Gandhi's life cmnot be deem- 
ed a fulfilled one so long as India is in chains and 
his ideal is in the air like Euclid's line, to use one 
of his own analogies. Euolid has been superseded 
by Einstein. It is a matter for speculation who is to 
take the place of Gandhi in India. As the author 
observes at the close of his study, the modern type of 
the professional politician, imported from Europe, is 
alien _ to India. " What India needs is just that 
blending of the religious and the political which is 
incorporated in Gandhi, the type of the 'political 
Guru". But it looks to-day as if India, nay, huma- 
nity at largejs in need of a far greater Gum than 
either Gandhi or Lenin, one who can achieve the ap- 
parently impossible task of reconciling their creeds 
by forming a synthesis that will unite the best ele- 
ments in both without the defects of either, 

M. R RAMA8WAMI. 



A NEW SOCIAL ORDER 
WHERE IS CIVILIZATION GOING? By ScOTf 

NEARING (Vanguard Press, New York). 1927. 

7^*4J. pp. 110. 50 cents. 
THiS is a very useful handbook on social evolution, 
dealing with the stages of civilisation through which 
the world has hitherto passed and indicating the 
paths along which social forces are at present mov- 
ing. The cultural life of the human race has, the 
author proves, moved in a spiral, not a circle. Cul- 
ture history is ordinarily divided into three phases or 
stages: Savagery, Barbarism and Civilisation. Mr. 
8cott Nearing adds a fourth stage under the title of 
a New Social Order, a culture stage beyond Civiliza- 
tion. A chart of culture stages and changes is given 
as frontispiece. Great stress is laid in this chart on 
economic characteristics — economio stages, tools, 



exchange, etc. Savages are hunters and nomads. ■ 
the earliest stages they live a hand-to-mouth exi 
ence. In the later stages of savagery, domestical 
of animals begins Stone tools are polished ; bo 
are constructed ; crude shelters are built. The ho: 
has given way to the early clan. Barbarism inclu( 
that period of culture history during which the hum 
race establishes a permanent habitat, elabora 
tools, organises village life, and learns to write 
pictures. Economically the outstanding character 
tic of barbarism is the establishment of a pern 
nent food supply. Civilisation begins with the 
ganisation of trade and commerce ; with the use 
hard metals for tools and machines ; with the orga 
sation of the civil state ; with the use of the phone 
alphabet. During civilisation the race learns 
work and live in large groups ; to practise an exti 
sive division of labour ; to communicate widely ; 
harness natural energy,— wind, water, steam, eleci 
city. Improved forms of production imply shifts 
social power. The feudal landlord class that h 
ruled for centuries scorned 'trade' and despised 'woi 
The new bnsiness class that emerged with the co 
mercial and industrial revolutions bought out a 
replaced the landlord class, with the result that bu 
ness class rule took the place of landlord rule. 1 
iob owning class dominated the masses. Slavery, se 
dom and wagery are, therefore, the outstanding 
cial ties or social relationships of civilisation. T 
modern bourgeois or business state is the most use! 
political machine that th9 business interests ha 
been able to devise. "Theoretically, the Unit 
States is a ' free country." Practically, the peoj 
there enjoy an unusually narrow range of politic 
choice. In the larger cities of the United Stat 
great bodies of police are maintained, expression • 
opinion is restricted by city ordinances arid sts 
sedition laws, while state constabulary and str 
militia, the sheriff with his deputies, the Fedei 
Secret Service, and the immense system of industr 
espionage maintained through the chief industr 
organisations of the country, constantly supervise t 
political and economic activities of the peopl 
Modern imperialism is closely related to industr 
surplus Sources of raw materials and markets 
finished goods are the most potent causes of int 
national rivalries and jealousies in extension of e 
pires. The War of 1914 was in a great measure d 
to the imperialistic designs with a view to controlli 
the markets of the world. 

The latest social force is the labour moveme 
Within two decades it has passed from its compai 
tively narrow confines within the capitalist empi) 
to a world Bphere in which it now plays a leadi 
r61e. " The proletarian revolution is the midwife 
the new social order." The labour movement is i 
to combat exploitation, plunder and organised d 
truction which have been present throughout the ent 
period of civilisation including its late or capital 
stage. The War of 1914 opened the eyes of the pro 
tariat. It cost as much to kill one man during I 
World War as it costs to maintain a British or G 
man working class family of five people for fo: 
years ! The contrasts between the culture pattern 
civilisation and the culture pattern of the new soc 
order are generalised as follows by Mr. Scott Ne 
ing :— First : From local social units to a world 
ciety. Second : From a class-divided to a classl 
society. Third : From superstition to social scieii 
Fourth : From riches for the few and pover y for i 
many to a guaranteed livelihood for all, Fifth : fn 
a working-class performing the labour and an ov 
ing class enjoying the leisure to the distribution 
leisure among all who render productive or use 
service In snprt s the new social order aims at or 
nising a ' human ' society— a Bociety in which llv 



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Here Mr. Wiseman disentangled him- 
self from the couch on which he had 
been reclining, stood up, and began to 
stride about the room. e I used/ he 
said, 'to have a modest friend whose 
native worth resisted the corrosion of a 
large fortune until in an evil day some- 
one made him president of a suburban 
board of education. The grasp of the 
gavel altered his personality. Now he 
insists on taking the chair whenever 
four men are gathered together, be- 
cause he says he has discovered in 
himself a genius for ordering debate. 

'There is something in the mere act 
of presiding that upsets equilibrium. 
A man exposed to the hot high winds 
that beat around the speaker's table 
becomes infected with the deadly germ 
of authority, and thereafter, when he 
opens his mouth, imagines he is broad- 
casting. I have noted that chairmen 
mvariably register superiority to the 
orators of occasions and patronize the 
issues propounded in their presence. 



admit, but one is safe in concluding 
that egotism originates in the lungs 
and intoxicates the mind. It lurks 
in elevated places, and promotions or 
victories dispose the system to its 
attack. It inflates its dupes, induces 
acute self-sensitivity, and distorts their 
pomts of view. Instinctively they 
usurp foregrounds, prerogatives, heroic 
roles, and speaking parts. Actors, 
salesmen, executives, editors, judges, 
and professors, — in fact, anyone whose 
business it is to talk down to someone 
else, — are liable to catch it. It is the 
most subtle of diseases: unlike suf- 
ferers with cancer or tuberculosis, its 
victims enjoy their symptoms, and 
the pain attendant on the malady is 
borne by the community. Ascribe 
egotism to the worst of braggarts and 
he takes on the air of a martyr an 
attributes the charge to envy. 

'If OTIPi ic pojrniUl 1 

I HAVE KNOWN POETS 

By Mary Austin 
I have known poets in my time. . . . 

I have also known a Cardinal, 
A gold-laced General, 

A Cabinet Minister and several millionaires. 

Learned men. lover men — 

And I would lose the lot of them 

For any one of half a dozen poets that I know! 

And I say, Lord, 

When my time comes to go, 

I shall not care for Heavenif the poets stay outside. 
You may keep my starry crown 
For some poor soul that craves it, 
And give my harp 
To any Angel child that plays it. 
But I Avill take the poets and what you have left 
over, 

A windy hill to walk upon, a filmy cactus flower, 
A maple tree, a lady fern or bee caroused in clover. 
Of all I've loved and sung about just the odds and 
ends — 

And two or three poets to be my friends! 



ABORIGINAL METAPHYSICS 



Tun Arunta: A Study of a Stone A<;e 
People. By Sir Baldwin Spencer and 
the late F. J. Oillen. Two volumes. 
(Macmillan. 36s. net.) 

, It was in 1894 that at Aliee Springs, in 
Central Australia, the Horn Expedition 
obtained from Mr. Gillen, who resided there 
and acted as Sub-Protector of Aborigines, 
a body of notes collected by him during the 
course of many years spent in close com art 
with the large and important tribe of the 
Arunta. It was plain that lie had discovered 
an anthropological gold mine, a site where 

* the student of primitive humanity might 
delve for years without exhausting the 
treasure. Thereupon the zoologist of the 
expedition, Professor Spencer, was quick to 
perceive that his biological training could be 
put to no better use than in seeking to make 
a complete study of a distinct kind of man — 
one that might be said to have type-value as 
standing for the very opposite of all that we 
mean by civilization. Five years later this 
happy combination of local knowledge and 
scientific method bore fruit in " The Native 
Tribes of Central Australia." Many experts, 
and among them assuredly Sir James Frazerof 
" The Golden Bough," would place this book 
at the head of the whole list of those ethno- 
graphic monographs from which modern 
ethnological theory draws its inspiration. 

This pre-eminence as a source of informa- 
tion in regard to the truly primitive is, of 
course, in no small measure due to the 
admirable care with which the authors have 
gathered, sifted and marshalled their facts. 
On the other hand, it is only reasonable that 
some of the honour should go to the Arunta 
themselves. Fair forms invite fair portraits, 
as Plato says ; and surely no more marvellous 
folk have ever come within the ken of the 
scientific observer. Not only in a geographical 
sense, but spiritually, this is antipodean man. 
\His world-view seems upside down to us : 
yet to himself it appears eminently right side 
up, and he feels as solid on his feet as we do. 
Moreover, there is good reason to think that 
our remoter forerunners shared his general 
outlook, so that, if either party is called upon 
to justify his mental attitude, it rests on us 
rather than on primal humanity to prove that 
our novel scheme of values is the truer. There 
has manifestly been a revolution in the human 
way of trying to make the best of life. We 
are before all else materialists, extra verts, 
exploiters of the environment. We are earth 
worms, wonderfully skilled in sucking sus- 
tenance from the dirt around us. Stone Age 
man, however, if the Arunta afford a clue 
j to his mentality, fed more on air than on the 
soil, like some plant of scanty roots and wide- 
spreading leafage. It mattered to him very 
little that life was uncomfortable so long as 



it was interesting. He cultivated meta- 
physics on a diet of witchetty grubs. So, too, 
Aurignacian man in Europe carved mammoth 
ivory into miracles of beauty in a cave-home 
that reeked like a hyena's den. In fact, what 
with his religious and aesthetic activities that 
created nothing external to the mind 
however much they may have recreated 
that mind itself, the old-world type of man 
would seem to have wasted his time in a 
way that, at any rate outside some of our 
older universities, has no parallel in the 
modern world. The paradox is that by so 
doing he managed to exist through as many 
millennia as civilization can count centuries, 
to its credit. Xo doubt our civilization wipes 
out such savagery almost automatically as soon 
j as it comes across it ; and, indeed, the Arunta 
i themselves are already well on their way to 
| become as extinct as the cave-artists of the j 
Dordogne. Even so, it remains to be seen 
whether materialism pays in the long run ; 
and it is at' least w T orth while to consider 
whether a salutary hint cannot be borrowed 
from the pioneers of the race as to how to 
maintain the vitality of the soul — a thing I 
perhaps easier to do in a wilderness of sand 
than in a wilderness of bricks and mortar. 

Now, according to the Arunta, the secret 
of happiness — of having, as they themselves , 
put it, a soul that is strong and good and 
glad — consists in being initiated into the 
mysteries. This, unfortunately, applies to 
] males only ; and whether there are compen- 

sating mysteries for the other sex is" highly j 
i doubtful, though some lady anthropologist 
may yet be destined to make discoveries in 
this direction. As it is, Strabo's confident I 
assertion that women were the originators of \ 
religion Is seemingly not borne out by the ' 
Australian evidence. On the contrary, among 
the secondary motives of the mere man's 
propensity for enwrapping himself in an 
atmosphere of awe is possibly the desire to 
keep woman in her place. On the whole, 
however, one cannot question the high 
seriousness of purpose exhibited by those 
who, at the price of the most painful dis- I 
cipline, advance stage by stage along a way ( 
of rites that seems to bring them ever nearer 
to a condition which they can only define 
by its most characteristic result — a sense of 
greater command over all tho resources of I 
life. To say ** magic/' as wo are apt to do 
when inclined to contrast the splendid 
assurance of the gesture w ith physical nature's 
lack of response, is to overlook the better 
half of the control over life secured by the 
man who believes that ho has become full 
of the power or grace conferred by his sym- 
bolic acts ; for at any rate he fortifies his 
heart and has achieved something real, if 
not physically real, in so doing. Or, again, 
wo call it magic because there is no God 
in it. Though tho German missionary, 
Strehlow, thought that the Arunta recognized 



some sort of {Supreme Being, Sir Baldwin 
Spencer, after a thorough investigation of the 
point, is unable to agree. To the civilized 
mind a godless type of religion may well seem 
a contradiction in terms ; yet it may surely 
be that the idea of God is the final rather 
than the efficient cause of religious evolution, j 
However this question be decided, it is largely I 
a question of words ; since it can hardly be I 
denied that their mysteries occupy for tho j 



Arunta the same place in their scheme of 
moral values as does any religion which treats 
helpfulness as part of the essence of God 
and finds it heartening to promote the con- 
stant contemplation of this truth by sym- 
bolic means of representing it. 

On the other hand, did not the language 
savour of anachronism one might credit the 
Armita with having brought religion into 
line with philosophy and Science. They do 
it, it is true, by wisely refraining from a strict 
application of the "principle of contradiction 
to matters that transcend sensible experi- 
ence. Thus, on the one hand they speak 
of a Creator who made the world and took no 
further responsibility for it — hardly a God, 
therefore, yet an artist who, as it were, chipped 
a flint and threw it away. Regardless of 
pedantic consistency, how ever, they anticipate 
Darwin by supposing men to have grown out 
of protoplasmic creatures, termed inapatua, 
that were plant, animal and man mixed up 
together. True, there are signs that we are 
| dealing here with two separate traditions, two 
schools of thought. On the whole, however, 
it would appear that Arunta philosophy shies 
at a logical dilemma and would answer every 
" Either . . . or with t; Neither and both.'' 
This power of acknowledging both sides of 
I a metaphysical puzzle is even more con- 
i spicuously illustrated by their psychology. 
One of the most striking novelties contributed 
by this latest version of the beliefs of the 
Arunta is the account given of the twofold 
nature or two-souledness of the human 
individual; He is partly arumburinga, 
partly kuruixi, the one being the 
transpersonal soul, eternal and changeless, 
the other the personal soul subject to birth 
and decay, though so far persistent that 
it is continually subject to reincarnation. 
Associated as these two principles are with 
certain material emblems, stone bull-roarers 
and the like, the Arunta mind finds it possible 
to represent tlio koruna as after each birth- 
cycle returning to a place symbolized by the 
sacred storehouse in which these emblems are 
hidden ; and here it resumes its fellowship 
with the aritnihuringa and, drawing on its 
infinite store of lite-force, goes forth re- 
freshed so a& to be born anew. Surely no 
Platonic myth could render more convinc- 



ingly that interplay of universal and parti- 
cular, of identity and difference, which causes 
every thinking man to realize that, though 
he owns his individual soul, it in turn owns 
him by being in touch with something larger 
and more abiding. 

So much, then, for the cloud-capped 
heights to which tho musings of Stone-Age 
man might attain. Did space allow, how- 
ever, one might go on t o insist on the other side 
of the picture and dwell on the aberrations 
to which an imagination such as is not con- 
trolled by sufficient attention to hard fact 
may lead a whole people ; so that not infre- 
quently their star-gazing lands them in the 
mud. Thus it is no doubt complimentary 
to one's friends to take their deaths so 
seriously as in each case to lix the respon- 
sibility on some possible enemy and slay him 
accordingly. Nay, in a hungry land this 
may even be a salutary, if unconscious, way 
of keeping the population within bounds. 
When all is said on the other side, however, 
this witch-ridden mood whereby the fact of 
natural death is distorted into an effect of 
omnipresent human devilry is a curse to 
those who entertain it. To live by faith in 
the unseen rather than by any science of the 
seen may be, on the whole, sound policy 
for mankind, to judge by the verdict of a 
; history of long perspective. Even so, science 
can do much to justify faith in the divine 
goodness by mitigating those accidents of tem- 
poral existence which make life so precarious 
for the savage and hence make it hard for 
him to distinguish the divine from the diabolic. 
Indeed, the wonder is that St one- Age humanity 
was so abounding in optimism. In a geo- 
graphical situation in which the whito man 
is simply unable to live, the Arunta could 
face life cheerfully by projecting their minds 
into a region where, however their bodies 
might suffer in the meantime, the best part 
of them, the soul, felt happy because active 
and free. 



... — U4 < jiuvv. was: 



Are you in earnest? Seize this very minute, 
Wha> you can do, or dream you can, begin it. 
Boldness has genius, power and magic in it. 

Only engage, and then the mind grows heated 

Begin, and then the work will be completed." 
Th« latterdav condpncpfi/M^-^p - * ' ~ 





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Gandhi--' Mill-Master^ 



Rajagop^lic 



Speech 



Seth Jamnalal Bajaj, Mr. Rajago- 
palachari, Satish Babu and PrafuliaBabu, 
the members of the Khadi tour party 
arrived at Santaliar on Thursday. A large 
public meeting was held there. 

Replying to an address of welcome 
Mr. Satish Chandra Das Gupta said that 
when the whole of Bengal doubt- 
ed, it was Santahar and its neighbour- 
hood that showed faith and helped to 
prove that the charkha was a relief to 
the distressed. The yarn and khadi pro- 
duced thare were of the best 
quality in Bengal. The Belief Com- 
mittee was doing immense work in that j 
direction. 

Seth Jamnalal Bajaj referred to the 
distress that the foreign cloth drain was 
bringing to the country. It was an act 
«f great shame, he said, for Indians to 
wear foreign cloth when there was such 
a beautiful thing as khadi, by wearing 
which they could not only help the poor 
spinners and weavers, but save the 
motherland from foreign control. 

Mr. Rajagopalachari described how 
the* khadi movement had come to the 
country as a blessing. He said that 
the All-India Spinners' Association 
Was working only with a capital of 
Rs. 20 lakhs. Even the smallest mill 
working at a loss had greater capital. 
But though the khadi seed wak small, 
a mighty tree was growing up. 
Poverty-stricken India was good soil for 



• the khadi seed. With Rs 20 lakhs 
invested in khadi work to-day about 
one lakh of spinners and weavers 
were engaged, distributed I m neany 
three thousand villages. They . were 
scattered all over and were living m 
their own houses. These people had 
no work for nine months ot the year 
and were swmYstarved during the 
period they were idle. People living 
in towns could nd* realise the depth 
of their villagers' poverty and distress. 
There were six lakhs of vihages 
containing 26 crores of people who 
were thus suffering. Each one of 
these villages was a beautiful God- 
built factory, lying idle for want of 
use. The great Mill-master Gandhi] i con- 
ceived the idea of employing this 
man-power on the charkha if it were 
done, the result would be tremendous. 
Only 150 years ago. the whole of 
India were only homespun and 
homewoven cloth and sent the 
surplus cloth to England and 
ether countries. Khadi should be 
bought even at a sacrifice to give oc- 
cupation to the semi-starved millions. 

He added that khadi was uneconomi- 
cal, but it was not so when national 
wealth was taken into account. Buying 
of foreign cloth meant stealing 65 
crores of rupees, year after year which, 
belonged by right to workers of our 
country and which could be easily 
distributed among the poorest if khadi 
was universally bought. 

Towards the conclusion of his speech, 
Mr. Rajagopalachari appealed to the 
railway workmen, who were present 
in large numbers to give up drink. 
Liquor, he said, increased poverty and 
hurt the body and soul. The poor 
were losing every year no less 
than Ks. 60 crores by the liquor drain. 

Collections for the khadi fund were 
made. Great enthusiasm is prevailing 
for khadi. 

The party is proceeding to Naogaon.. 





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CONOMICS OF KHADDAR 



By Richard B. Gregg Rs. 



8 



Some Opinions: 




" I was delighted with it. It is original, terse and convincing 

The sooner now the book is published the better. I wish that the book will be 
widely read by the critics." — Mahatma Gandhi. 

" Immensely pleased, whole essay exactly meets need."— C. F. Andrews. 

" Owing to our rragmental system of education, we are little apt to recog- 
nise an incident unless it has the imprimatur of Western appreciation. 
Witness the classical example of Ramanujam, a genius of a calibre flourishing 
rarely but once in the course of two or three centuries ; neglected in his early 
days but suddenly springing into fame on recognition thereof by a Western 
savant but too late to repair the ravages of earlier neglect which landed him 
into a premature grave. So to some mentalities inclusive of those of the bulk 
of our intelligentsia even khaddar will have to be justified by accepted " scho- 
lastic " arguments. The "Economics of Khaddar" is a pronouncement 
on the khaddar programme on the lines of Western thought. The author 
is a ) American of an industrialist country. His arguments are exactly 
those that could be expected from a Professor of Political Economy. The 
author has proved, citing numerous facts and figures, that even as a machine 
the charka is more economically efficient than the power mill. The depletion 
of natural fuel, as pointed out by the author, is raising a crisis in industrialism 
and even the industrialist nations will have to adopt in the future a policy 
akin to the charkha. This is the view of a long sighted economist who while 
fully accepting the text-book principles now in vogue has enough intelligence 
and breadth of imagination to look a few years ahead. The author forcibly 
points out how overproduction leads to a search for consumers for commodities 
and is the direct cause of unemployment and its pernicious consequenc es. In 
my view the chief value of the book consists in the frequently emphasised ex- 
position that the economics now taught as final in the West is only an one- 
sided aspect of a more comprehensive economic science and that with our 
knowledge, accretion of additional facts and fresh social systems we have to 
revise the notions now passing as fundamental in economic science. Political 
Economy is still waiting for its Einstein. 

The book, as is usual with Ganesan's publications, is well got up in 
readable type and handy in size and is full of references to books on the 
subjects dealt with if the reader cares to learn more." 



— Deivan Bahadur R. Ramachandra Row in the Hindu 

GANDHI LITERATURE 



an 

Young India,— I 
Young- India— II 
A Guide to Health 
Neethi Dharma 
Gandhi ji in Indian Villages 

READY SHORTLY 

Satyagraha in South Africa— By Mahatma Gandhi 
Gandhiji in Ceylon 

S. GANESAN, Tnplicane, Madras, S.E 




{+<* 



o 

to 




ft. 




• u...^ * ..i, ...«.^ social nunureciji ot 
thousands of pounds sterling. 

CON TIN ENTA I> TRADE 
Lancashire, however, is not alone in 
her troubles as the Manchester Guar- 
dian Commercial speaks of Italian 
loses sustained to 19-7 and also pub- 
lishes a letter from it3 Berlin corre- 
spondent about the declining activity 
in the German textile industry in 
which employment throughout last 
year was so good. Even so, cotton 
spinners and manufacturers were 
nevertheless said to be all engaged for 
about an average of four months 
ahead. 

The following index numbers of 
wholesale prices in Calcutta in respect 
of cotton manufactures are published 
in the Indian Trade Journal : — 



1914 End of July 
1020 Aucua! Average 

was 

1 926 

lost 

lOQfi Peccmbc 
March 




100 
833 
U 10 
173 

168 

M 1^ 



AX ENGLISH PAINTER 



Illustrations to Young's Night Thoughts. 
Done in Water-colour bv William Bl\ke. 
With an Introductory Essay by Geoffrey 
Keynes. (Harvard College Press. 
London : Milford. £8 8s. net") 
| This portfolio contains thirty pages, five 
; reproduced in colour and twenty-five in mono- 
I tone, from the original water-colours in the 
: library of the late William Augustus White, 
: whoso collection of Blake's illuminated books 
j was, as Mr. Geoffrey Keynes says in his ex- 
; tremely interesting introduction, unique. The 
j reproductions, printed in Austria, are as good 
! as they could be. Blake, disappointed at the 
j financial failure of his own illuminated books, 
! may. Mr. Keynes suggests, have wished " to 
i try the effect of a fine edition of some popular 
i favourite, putting grand marginal decorations 
j on almost every page." But it is not certain 
whether he himself chose Young's " Night 
Thoughts," or whether it was suggested to 
him by Fuseli or some other friend. Blake set 
I to work with inexhaustible energv and dfo- 
t duccd 537 designs, first drawn with the' 
brush in Indian ink and then more or less 
coloured in water colour. But though the 
publisher, as is stated in the preface to the 
original edition, regarded the book " not as 
a speculation of advantage, but as an 
indulgence of inclination— as an under- 
taking in which fondness and partiality would 
not permit him to be curiouslv accurate in 
adjusting the estimate of profit and loss," 
Blake was nevertheless paid at the rate of 
about ninepence each for his water-colour 
designs, with, probably, about a guinea extra 
for the engraving of each plate. The pub- 
lisher wished to make the arts ;: subservient 
to the purposes of religion " ; but the book was 
a failure, whether^because, as Mr. Keynes 
says, the engravings are not a great success, 
or for some other reason, and only the first of 
four projected parts ever came out. 

Young's " Xight Thoughts," that singular 
monument of eighteenth-cent ury piety and 
ideas of the sublime, was certainlv an odd 
book for Blake to illustrate, but he seems to 
have been perfectly happy with it. In many 
cases the lines which Blake chose to illustrate 
are marked by him, otherwise it might well 
be difficult to guess what he was illustrat- 
ing. Such a line as 

Wit. a true Pagan, deifies th? Brute, 
is illustrated by Wit personified as a human 
figure kneeling in adoration before a coiling 
serpent, which " rears up presumptuously 
upon its tail." The text contains no reference 
to a serpent, but, as Mr. Keynes tells us, " it 
is introduced by Blake because it svmbolrzes 
for him what is material and vile as opposed 
to the spiritual and good, and so fulfils the 
poet's intention." He must have gone about 
with his head filled with his poetic symbolism, 
so that anything could be expressed in terms 



of it. Blake, perhaps the greatest of our 

English painters, was also one of the most 
typical of them. Painters of other countries 
may be poetical, but, as now in France, they 
often let the poetry look after itself, and it 
I comes by the way. English painters often 
, start with a poetical idea in their minds, not 
perhaps an idea so abstractly poetical and 
symbolic as those of Blake, but a painter's 
poetry, which attaches itself to the things 
which they like to paint and invests them 
with pleasing associations. In some cases, of 
course, these poetical ideas are bad for the 
painter, in others, it may be argued, they 
actually do him good ; always supposing that, 
as with Blake, they have also a great deal of 
the different sensibility of the painter. 

One would not say that these poetical ideas 
in the painter's mind make him quite un- 
conscious of his own aims as a painter, but 
undoubtedly they give him a certain freedom 
from the burden of elaborate conscious design. 
His design may be freer ; in some cases he 
may be content with less elaborate designs of 
which he is not capable, for his mind is running 
upon poetry. There is such a freedom in 
Blake's decorations, and it is well to be seen 
in these illustrations to Young's " Night 
Thoughts.? The decorations are placed on 
the page, in the centre of which is inset the 
i page of print, with a spontaneity which a 
| completely conscious painter might achieve, 
but only at the expense of perfect placing, 
if he were accustomed to place his design by 
hard study. But the spontaneity is found 
even more in the exquisite curves and ten- 
drils, the beautiful calligraphy, which is to be 
seen, for example, in that coiled serpent 
which symbolizes the Brute. It is certain 
that such calligraphy is to be found chiefly 
in painters who are naturally poetic, as, to 
take an example from modern times, in the 
pictures and decorations of Mr. Duncan 
Grant, a painter with a great deal of the 
English liking for things as well as arrange- 
ments of them, and for things which have 
more or less poetic associations. The painter 
can scarcely evolve such a natural grace in 
his brush strokes, or even perhaps such a 
spontaneous ease in his main design, by that 
elaborate nursing of his sensibility, that 
intellectual construction of the main design, 
which is the concern of the great classical 
painter ; and it may well be that the painter 
best achieves this ease if a part of his mind 
is occupied with his poetry. This spon- 
taneous design may not be as great as the 
design of more classical painters, but it is 
certainly a kind of design which in its own 
way is very delightful. But this poetry and 
this spontaneous; kind of design is a delicate 
plant, and it is apt to wither when it comes 
in contact with the elegance demanded by 
the aristocratic patron. This is the disaster 
which often came upon our English portrait 
painters ; but Blake kept himself unspotted 
from the world, and to the end remained an 
honest and a singularly spontaneous English 
painter. 




7 



Binyon, Laurence 

The Engraved Designs of William Blake. With 
about 20 reproductions in colour and 60 in collotype, £6 6s net. 
Edition de Luxe (100 copies) with extra coloured plate, and a 
complete extra set cf plates in a portfolio, £12 izs. net. This 
volume is planned as a companion to " The Paintings 
of William Blake," with which it is uniform. 

The Songs of Experience. A companion and uniform 
volume to Blake's " Songs of Innocence," reproduced in 
the same way. 12/ 6d. net. 

Blake's Songs of Innocence. The " Songs of Inno- 
cence " reproduced complete, from one of the two copies in 
the British Museum, in the size and colours of the original. 
Small crown 4to. 12/ 6d. net. 



*7 




Blake, William 

^The Songs of Experience. A companion and uniform 
volume with our edition of Blake's " Songs of Innocence 
(reproduced throughout in colour from a copy at the British 
Museum. I2J\ Gd. 

The Book of Job. With Blake's Illustrations. A beautifully 
printed quarto edition of " The Book of Job," illustrated 
with 21 plates of Blake which ranks with his very finest work. 
12J. 6d. net. 




1/ 





-~-*Ul X C 





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But instead of the terms " form " or "idea" he has 
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standards of morality and " a mode of consciousness that flings away every 
habitual protection and accepts only the conditions of life as they unfold 
themselves in the development of his own personality as well as that of 
others." 

A very valuable book, full of suggestions regarding a possible future of 
human relationships and consciousness. The reader who is sympathetically 
patient with a rather difficult style will perceive genuinely new and sig- 
nificant conceptions coming to birth. The reviewer closed the book wishing 
that Dr. Burrow could have been Nietzsche's friend. 

L. L. Whyte. 





In reading Dr. Burrow s book one begins to realise the transformation 
that could be produced in human society during the next half century If 
men who have been matured by rich and profound personal experience brin- 
the authority of a genuine psychology t o bear on what is now accepted as 

normal human behaviour. As the result of a chance personal experience 
Dr. Burrow became dissatisfied with his professional outlook as a 
Freudian analyst and began a very painful and courageous examination 
of his own habitual processes of thought. This led him to the revolutionary 
view that not only the " neurotic " but also the " normal " civilised man 
is in the grip of a mental dissociation, his behaviour being governed by 
motives or tendencies of whose true nature he is unconscious, which he 
therefore misinterprets. To Dr. Burrow, Freud, Jung, Adler and the whole 
school of modern analysts are themselves unconscious of the significant 
organic and social tendencies which lie at the root of human personality, 
and whose repression leads to their symbolic substitution or inversion as 
sexuality, desire for power, etc. In his view the current standards of nor- 
mality are neurotic expressions, resulting from a lack of deeper spontaneous 
fulfilment. When free fulfilment through functional relationships in human 
society is thwarted the individual seeks to satisfy the repressed need by 
setting up an image of himself as separate from his neighbours, and the 
self-conscious establishment of this image hinders true organic fulfilment and 
results in the egotistic search for sensation and power. 

The matter is put very clearly by Dr. Burrow as a contrast between 
sexuality, the Freudian principle underlying the tendencies of the unconscious 
and manifest in the lives and experience of the vast majority of " normal " 
people, and sex, the deeper organic flow from whose repression alone sexuality 
arises. 

Sexuality is . . . intrinsically exclusive of sex. Sex is fife in its deepest 
significance. By sexuality ... I mean the restless, obsessive, over-stimulated 
quest for temporary self-gratification that everywhere masquerades as sex, 
and is everywhere substituted for the strong, simple, quiet flow of feelmg 
that unites the organic and the conscious in a single stream and is the expression 
of personality in its native inherency. 
Dr. Burrow views consciousness as originally an aspect of social functioning, 
wliile the separateness of self-consciousness is a later development leading to 
unhealthy conditions when for any reason it becomes exaggerated. The 
neurosis is a social phenomenon, and both neurotic and normal man are 
unhealthy, though of the two the former is the more hopeful, for he is at least 
in active rebellion, and knows that something is wrong. Other points on 
which fresh light is thrown are the futility of moral teaching based on the 
conception of right and wrong, the special place of self-conscious man in an 
otherwise unself-conscious nature, the difference between eommentative 
and functioning states of mind, the need for honestly subjective standards 
and interpretations, the illusion of personal determinism and sponsorship, 
and warfare and industrial greed as matters for the psychiatrist. Dr. Burrow 
asks if each of us will choose between sticking to a theory of life with vicarious 



^7 



COLONEL LAWRENCE 



Lawrence and the Arabs. By Robert Graves. (Cape.) 7s. 6d. net. 

It is easy to feel strongly about Col. Lawrence's adventures in Arabia : 
to see them as a betrayal of the civilizing influences that we believe it should 
be the privilege of so-called Christian nations to extend among less favoured 
people : to wonder what good has come out of this stirring up of revolt among 
Desert tribes, and to feel that the exploitation of them in a quarrel between 
Western Powers was a base business, too lightheartedly undertaken by an 
Oxford scholar not long out of his teens. 

That is a negative attitude, easy to adopt and fruitful of much humanitarian 
spluttering. But it leads to nothing except anger and resentment, because 
those who take it have not done so imaginatively, but have only posed 
themselves in an ideal attitude. More profitably we may ask ourselves what 
we should have done had Fate put us in Lawrence's position. There he was, 
the right man on the spot at the right time. According to all the ethical 
considerations which govern the policy of nations, he manifestly did the right 
thing in a manner that commands intense admiration ; and with such success 
that his story has passed into the cloudy realm of historical romance. He has 
become the envy of youth. For what is it to command legions at the bidding 
of politicians, compared with conducting the smallest campaign according 
to your own will, in your own way, to ends which you may largely determine ? 
The war that spelt individual slavery to millions was for Lawrence the triumph 
of individualism. The man who says he does not envy such an experience, 
at such a time, most probably deceives himself. Which of us would not 
have jumped at the chance Lawrence took, had circumstance offered it to us 
and had we had wit enough to perceive it, ability and courage enough to 
carry it out ? 

And there the matter might stand, but for the fact that every sane person 
knows that mankind betrays its best interests when it hangs the glamour of 
romance over war. War is what consciousness makes it : it is horror only 
according to the depth of consciousness. All the trappings of adventure 
serve to lull that consciousness which man needs to deepen and intensify 
daily, unless he wants to condemn his children to something like race-suicide. 

Therefore we can no longer tolerate the sight of war decked out with the 
trimmings of romance. We know too well that the emotions of the arm-chair 
enjoyers of Col. Lawrence's adventures are of a kind that prepare the mental 
ground for war as surely as a warm bed prepares the body for sleep. Even 
atrocities are not very terrible if they are confined to the desert some thousands 
of miles away, and are, of course, practised by brown-skinned people. Excite- 
ment prevents imagination from morbidly realizing the feelings of the poor 
devils who were killed in heaps when the railway bridges were blown up. 
War is war, and romance redeems it when you look through the wrong end of 
Time's telescope, and by turning a page you can assure yourself of the ultimate 
glory of your heroes. 

Hence, for the preservation of our sanity, we are compelled not merely 
to question the advisability of this popular rehandling of Lawrence's story, 
but to probe our own civilization in the hope of finding the perversion of 



COLONEL LAWRENCE 



281 



function within society which can turn the humane and artistic energy of a 
young archaeologist to the slaughter of Turks. In short, Lawrence's indi- 
vidualism gives us the chance of asking ourselves the individual question 
about war. What is its effect upon one who chose it ? Was he the sort to 
whom war comes as second nature ? Is war redeemed by romantic circum- 
stance and personal volition ? 

On the contrary, it seems to us that the perversion which organized war 
demands only displays its full horror when seen through the conflicting 
emotions of a highly sensitive free man who has set himself war as a task. 
And that perceived (as it appears that Lawrence himself perceived it, when, 
for instance, he wonders " why I am always trying to blow up railway trains 
and bridges instead of looking for the well at the world's end ") may we not J 
question the basis of any education that fails to put the ideal attitude of war I 
as non possumus before every fully grown man ? Surely our education is I 
lacking in some essential element if the knowledge it imparts is so superficial I 
as to be unrelated to the ethics of living. Somebody has got to do some hard 
thinking and true feeling about this plague of war. Are not the homes of 
wisdom and learning the places where this thinking should begin ? Or are 
they still as hobbled by tradition as when Shelley was sent down ? 

Mr. Robert Graves has written this book to take the place of Revolt in the 
Desert which Col. Lawrence decided to withdraw from publication. Granted 
that Lawrence has the right to dole out history in this cat-and-mouse fashion, 
we must be grateful to Mr. Graves. He gives us a resume of the earlier 
book, together with many interesting, and some rather puerile, biographical 
details. He has found it more than a little difficult to write the biography 
of a living friend, especially one so sensitive and idiosyncratic as Col. Lawrence. 
He is usually content to regard his subject through a magnifying glass of 
admiration, and to take pride in leaving the reader (bored with the intelligence 
that Col. Lawrence called his racing motor-bike " Boanerges ") to use his own 
insight. Many interesting details about Lawrence's childhood and doings 
subsequent to the war are given here ; but there is too callow an air about 
such comments as these : 

He was brought up to do without female society and the habit has remained 
with him. That he has a fear or hatred of women is untrue. He tries to talk 
to a woman as he would to another man, or to himself. If she does not return 
the compliment by talking to him as she would to another woman, he leaves 
her, . . . 

He has no stronger objection to war, as war, than to the human race as the 
human race. . . . 

He has, it seems, no use for the human race as such, or interest in its con- 
tinuance. He has no sentimentality about universal brotherhood, like Swift ; 
he has no use for the works of man. And has come to this view, I think, by 
the same road as Swift, by an overwhelming sense of personal liberty, a largeness 
of heart, and an intense desire for perfection so obviously unattainable as hardly 
to be worth starting for. 
These are fatuous remarks, unworthy of their subject and of Mr. Graves, 
who may be reminded concerning Swift that mankind has at least the benefit 
of this sentence of his : " A soldier is a Yahoo hired to kill in cold blood as | 
many of his own species, who had never offended him, as possibly he can." I 
The book is to be commended most of all to those who have a faculty for 
reading between the lines. 

Max Plowman. 



THE PRIVATE CONRAD 



Xjfe and Letters of Joseph Conrad. Edited by G. Jean Aubry. (Heine- 
\ mann.) Two vols. 42s. 

Wrtfi all respect for M. G. Jean Aubry who, as editor, has done his 
work w^th painstaking care, and who, as biographer and friend of Conrad, 
has effaced himself completely behind a mountain of documents, one cannot 
help sayingtthat these two large volumes make dull reading. They lie heavily 
in the handsNand heavily on the mind. Those who have read and re-read 
The Shadow Lme, The Nigger of the Narcissus, The Secret Sharer, and Heart 
of Darkness, wihNind nothing in Conrad's correspondence to remind them 
of the unique imagination which created those tales ; and ike peculiar charm 
of his narrative prose\is as absent from these letters as from his essays and 
reviews. Why this should be so need not be discussed. /Briefly, one accounts 
for the flat style of his journalistic work by the fact tllat he did it for profit 
or to oblige a friend but ne\er of his own accord ; also, as he himself said, he 
felt cramped in the short space of an article, for /once he had centred his 
thoughts upon a subject he always required more room than an editor could 
spare to develop his argument. V What was planned as a short story, it will 
be remembered, more than once gtew into a novel.) And to account for the 
absence of charm in his letters is it toot enoughr to say that some people, like 
Pliny, can write letters that please Vot only the recipients but the whole 
world, but that other people, most people, cannot do so ? After all, who are 
they whose correspondence has made th6m famous ? To confine the question 
to English writers, the names that immediately occur to us are Horace 
Walpole, Dorothy Osborne, Charles Lamjo,W[ary Montague and Lord Chester- 
field. That is to say, the great letter/writers, Lamb excepted, are famous 
only for their correspondence. Not/ one oX them was an artist. On the 
contrary, few of the artists could be/placed inVhe first class as letter writers. 

The fact, then, that Conrad's correspondence is not, in the mass, very 
interesting even to one who admires him very much as a novelist, is neither 
unusual nor important. His books he wrote to Wease the public ; but his 
letters were intended only /lor private reading,. Most of the letters 
in these volumes were addressed to other writers Mio were also intimate 
friends. He discusses with them technical difficulties of expression ; he 
sends them his manuscripts and asks for criticism ; hte receives and reads 
their work and in general praises it with the enthusiasm of^, friend who prefers 
to flatter rather than/to judge. He tells them also a gd^d deal about his 
domestic worries, h^ financial troubles, and his own ill-he\lth. He writes 
to his literary agent for money, or discusses with him business details of copy- 
rights and royaljbes. All these things were of great interest at the time to 
himself and to/fiis correspondents. But Conrad would be the first to affirm 
that such letters are not necessarily of public or literary importance. In his 
case I am of the opinion that they are not important. Certain other people, 
including^ the editor and publisher, do not agree with me, for of these two 
well-bound, well-printed, well-indexed books, a large part of the first and 
the vmole of the second volume are devoted to Conrad's letters. 

As for the biography, the facts are evidently authentic. The editor is care- 
ful to make no statement that he cannot prove. We knew that Conrad was 



PROBLEMS AND PROPHECIES 



Possible Worlds, and other Essays. By J. B. S. Haldane. (Chatto and 
Windus.) 

There are thirty-six essays in this admirable book. The range of subjects 
tveated is astonishing, even for a scientist of Mr. Haldane's eminence. From 
" Blood Transfusion " to " Kant and Scientific Thought," from 4i Man as a 
Sea Beast " to " The Last Judgment " — a daring speculation about a future 
migration of humanity to another planet — there is practically no department 
of science into which he does not give us an illuminating glimpse. If the 
" average man," whose interest Mr. Haldane particularly solicits in his preface, 
does not rub his eyes and " attempt to realize what is happening to-day in the 
laboratories," it will certainly not be for lack of the stimulus of brilliant 
exposition. 

The feature which perhaps most appeals to the present writer is Mr. Hal- 
dane's uncompromising attitude towards effete religious tradition and preju- 
dice, those unlovely incrustations upon the body social. The essay, " Some 
Dates," comes near the beginning of the book as if to give a right perspective 
for the subject matter of those that follow, in virtue of which we may appre- 
ciate the sane and dignified Weltanschauung of a modern scientist. The 
great merit of this book as a whole is that it does embody a world-outlook of 
generous scope, free from the narrow specialism and threadbare materialism 
which is often associated with the " scientific " outlook. The closing words 
of " Some Dates " are as follows : 

And religion will inevitably alter its standpoint. ... On a planet more 
than a thousand million years old it is hard to believe — as do Christians, Jews, 
Mohammedans and Buddhists — that the most important event has occurred 
within the last few thousand years, when it is elear that there were great 
civilizations before that event. It is equally difficult to doubt that many events 
as significant for humanity will occur in the future. In that immeasurable 
future the destiny of humanity dwarfs that of the individual. If our planet 
was created a few thousand years ago to end a few years or a few thousand 
years hence, it is conceivable that the main purpose to be worked out on it 
is the salvation and perfection of individual human beings. No religion which 
accepts geology can regard such a purpose as anything but subsidiary. If we 
define religion as our attitude to the universe as a whole, the new time scale 
will make us humbler as individuals, but prouder as a race. Our individual 
lives are the merest spangles of existence. The life of our ancestors goes back 
for a thousand million years. That of our descendants may last very much 
longer. And we cannot say with any certainty that it will not endure for ever. 

Those who still cling to the outworn beliefs of narrow " orthodoxies " might 
do worse than ponder over this passage. Their attention might also be drawn 
to the restrained but thorough-going realism of the essay entitled " Meroz," 
in which Mr. Haldane gives an account of the uninspiring part played by the 
" orthodoxies " during the war. " Priests have always used their power to 
evade the moral obligations of the ordinary man ; and threatened him with 
fire here or hereafter, or with social or economic penalties if he referred to 
the fact," says Mr. Haldane roundly, in a manner reminiscent of Nietzsche. 
He concludes as follows : — 

If Protestant Christianity is to be saved, it will not be by its clergy but by 
men who, like St. Paul, will preach the Gospel in the intervals of earning their 



living and risking their lives like ordinary mortals. They would not be com- 
pelled by economic considerations to profess dogmas which daily become less 
credible." And they might salve what is valuable in Christianity from the 
present wreckage. But the longer the fortunes of that religion are entrusted 
to the clergy, the more remote does that contingency become. 

Those who may find an effect of li Put that in your pipe and smoke it," and 
w ho perhaps may be repelled by a certain " robustiousness " in the last 
passage, should remember that it is the challenge of a scientist and of a man 
w r ho has not hesitated to subject his own body to drastic experiments in the 
interests of science and of humanity (see the essay " Every man his own 
rabbit "). Such a challenge can have no painful sting for the man who is 
aware of the increasing complexity and depth of modern consciousness — for 
I the man who is religious in the sense of Mr. Murry, that he tries to render 
| himself an account of and remain true to his own experience. It will have a 
sting for " serious " but comfortable people whose kt seriousness," compared 
with the high seriousness of the true scientist in any domain of human 
knowledge, too frequently takes the form of some kind of obscurantism. 

There is hardly a problem concerning the survival and elevation of the type 
man for which Mr. Haldane does not forecast a possible solution. For 
example, the end of the article on enzymes (enzymes are ferments of which 
the chemical composition is largely unknow r n but whose functional importance 
throughout Nature is incalculable) is as follows : " When — not if — we can 
separate the cellulose-splitting enzymes from those which break-up sugar 
further, we shall be able to convert wood-pulp or hay quantitatively into 
human food. This is one of the facts which render dubious all prophecies as 
to over-population. The upper limit to human members is not set by any 
facts of nature, but by human ignorance and inadaptability." It is obvious 
that the realization of such a possibility would have far-reaching consequences 
for mankind. If, as we are told, the " necessity " for wars does depend on 
economic factors — in the last resort, on food supplies — then it is to be hoped 
that we are within measurable distance of a day when there will be no excuse 
for Jingo and other imperialisms — nor for feverish discussions on birth- 
control ! Thanks to the kind of eugenics adumbrated in the " Future of 
Biology," the shadow of the awful name of Malthus will cease to cloud the 
lives of confidently philoprogenitive peoples, and humanity will combine to 
bring about the end towards which " the whole creation groaneth and travail - 
eth " — the emergence of a new r kind of being w ho shall bear the same relation 
to mind as mind does to life and life to matter. It is the urge towards this 
which finds expression in the higher forms of religion, says Mr. Haldane, 
avowing once again that in the last resort Religion and Science are one. 



Motherhood and Its Enemies. By Charlotte Haldane. (Chatto and 
Windus.) 7s. 6d. net. 

This is a discursive book. It is obviously the fruit of wide reading, as is 
shown in the first half, which is devoted to a historical account of sex-relations 
from early Jewish up till modern times. The second half deals with the 
multifarious and conflicting data steadily accumulating around the inchoate 
modern " problem of woman." Owing to the number of authorities quoted 
it tends rather to have the character of a compilation. On that account 



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DHE minds and interests of mathe- 
maticians are peculiar. Who cares 
whether Achilles, who even if he ever 
existed probably never saw a tortoise, 
could have overtaken the brute: The 
answer is that F. P. Ramsey. Fellow of 
King's College, Cambridge, cares very 
much indeed for as he shows in his article 
thereby hangs a very long tale, covering 
the nature of mathematics in the first 

place and in a sense the nature of the 
umverse. In io 22 while he was 
school at Winchester this brilliant young 
ma hematician published an elaboratf 
criticism of Air. Maynard Keynes's trea 
use ,on Probability, which grea ly dis- 

nfalhble e A^ 8 danS ' ^ ^ ^ it as 
ntall ble At the same time he refuted the 
Douglas Credit scheme, then making con! 
verts ,n the Universities, by a series of 
mathematical formulae which put him in 
the front rank of the economists 

four years later, after a triumphant 
university career, we find him S t he 

Tt° n *6 f T d T nS f m «hemati c : 
m the 1926 Encyclopaedia Britannic* 

r°r s The For - * 

first intrnJ . h 8 hte V«n. which forms his 
nrst introduction to America. 



a 




"Men are free," says Mr. D. H. Lawrence, "when they 
are in a living homeland, not when they are straying and 

(breaking away. Men are free when they are obeying 
'some deep inward voice of religious belief. Men are free 
when they belong to a living, organic, believing com- 
munity, active in fulfilling some unfulfilled, perhaps un- 
realized purpose." This, we might almost say, is the 
condition of a great literature — though the community may 
be, ideally perhaps should be, and indeed in the eighteenth 
century was, the world. There still exist communities that 
retain this belief, in others it is always on the point of 
being regenerated, and we may look forward with abso- 
lute confidence to a day, not too remote, when a new as- 
sembly of philosophers, gathered from all peoples, will re- 
vive in some undreamed-of form the pan-human faith of 
the Encyclopaedists. But for our contemporaries — those, 
at least, whose consciousness dates from the war — noth- 
ing of the kind has ever existed. They inhabit a ravaged, 
hostile world, a world that has ceased to believe in itself 
and offers them no postulates, moral and social, that they 
can share. 



ffllj 
IP 



3 a 



This fact explains, as it also excuses, the chaotic in- 
effectualness of so much contemporary literature. It is 
unable either to uphold or react against anything socially 
or morally important, and consequently has no fulcrum. 
Without the general notion of "sin" Baudelaire's diabolism 
would have been a mere succession of passes in the air. 
Whether they attacked or defended the accepted values of ] 
society, the great writers of the nineteenth century de- 
rived their intensity from the existence of those values. If 
they opposed tradition it was in the name of reason; if : 
they opposed rationalism it was in the name of faith. 
They were able to resist one cause because they were sof 
firmly grounded in another, and this gave them their mo- 
mentum, called their forces into play and developed that 
astonishing energy, so common in their generation, which 
has scarcely any counterpart in ours. Left to himself, 
separated from these general currents of a living society, 
the individual can accomplish very little. He becomes an 
"infinitely repellent particle," feeding on his own com- 
plexes. 




Because of this the world that is reflected in contem- 
porary literature is very small. When we think of Whit- 
man, Melville, Ibsen, Borrow, Tolstoy we seem to be look- 
ing out through immense windows that open upon vast 
spaces — continents, oceans, or long vistas of history. 
Everything is magnified; the human drama assumes colos- 
sal proportions ; we are participants in some elemental con- 
flict of darkness and light; human nature regains in our 
consciousness the tragic dignity it so seldom seems to 
possess in our own personal experience. It is extraordi- 
nary, considering the extent to which science has enlarged 
our knowledge of life, that literature to-day should con- 
vey so small a sense of it; but this is because our expe- 
rience is more and more personal and less and less gen- 
eral. If Mr. Yeats attached himself to the cause of Irish 
nationalism, if Maurice Barres attached himself to the 
cause of nationalism in France, if Anatole France attached 
himself to the socialist movement, it was, we may be sure, 
from motives of self-preservation; there are very few so- 
cial institutions from which we can still draw the sap of 
existence, and each of these great movements contains a 
fund of general life. If literature is not to pass into a 
long sleep, the prey of a sterile aestheticism that substitutes 
the means for the end, it must re-establish its connexion 
with the labouring body of humanity : it must assume that 
this body has a purpose and a direction. And the great 
task of the writers of to-day is to discover, among the in- 
numerable cross-currents of the choppy sea of our genera- 
tion, the cause that contains the most fruitful germs of the 
future. 



Us 





If one of the guildsmen transgresses the rules of 
his organization, the society takes steps to punish him. 
If he falls out with a fellow-member, the dispute is 
adjusted by the tribunal of the guild, in accordance 
with the common usage and common law of the trade. 
If a member of another guild is involved in the 
argument, arbitration is still the regularly accepted 
procedure ; for, according to Mr. Arnold, no reputable 
Chinese ever takes a case into court except as a last 
resort. 

In inter-guild cases, the local Chamber of Commerce 
comes into action. The Chamber is, with certain quali- 
fications, a federation of guilds, and its most important 
function is perhaps that of judicial arbitration. If 
one of the parties refuses to subscribe to the award, 
the tribunal of the Chamber seldom employs any 
means of enforcing its decision. If the disgruntled 
party wishes to carry his cause to the public courts, 
it is of course his privilege to do so; but the courts 
often refer the case back again to the Chamber, or at 
least accept the guidance of the Chamber's decision ; 
and the result is that the complainant usually comes out 
about where he went in. Reference to the courts is 
comparatively infrequent, for the guilds and chambers 
of commerce "settle the great majority of disputes in 
a Chinese mercantile community." 

In this way, the Asiatic puts the theory of anarch- 
ism into practice, not by assuming an other-worldly 
indifference to the affairs of State, or by launching 
a direct attack upon organized government, but by 
performing independently of the Government those 
functions which Governments ordinarily perform. As 
long as Governments have sovereign powers, indiffer- 
ence to politics is impossible; as long as Governments 
carry on certain serviceable functions, not elsewhere 
provided for, any direct attack upon them is likely to 
he worse than useless. The task of the practical 
anarchist, as we see it, is the withdrawal of all desir- 
able functions from political control, and the arrange- 
ment for the performance of these functions by 
non-political agencies. This is a constructive task, if 
there ever was one, and the anarchist may be sure that 
the Governments will fade away, and indifferentism 
to politics will develop of itself, just in proportion as 
this work of construction is satisfactorily performed. 



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PERIODICALS 



" MIND " 

[Volume xxxvii, No. 145, January, 1928.] 
Contents : Morton Prince, Why the Body has a Mind, and the Survival of 
Consciousness after Death ; H. \V. B. Joseph, What does Mr. W. E. 
Johnson mean bylTPyoposition ? (II) ; L. J. Russell, An Elementary 
Symbolism for Logic ; R. B. Braithwaite, The Idea of Necessary Con- 
nexion (II) ; Discussions — C. H. Langford, Singular Propositions ; 
J. H. Muirhead, Professor Maclver's Criticism of the Idealistic Theory 
of the General Will. 

Professor Morton Prince's bright and interesting article deals mainly 
with a view of the relation between body and mind which he thinks is now 
warranted by the advances made in physics and psychology in recent years. 
Whether one can agree, however, that his conclusions follow with the 
" inexorable logic " which Dr. Prince affirms may well be doubted. We are 
urged not to forget that whatever theories philosophers have held in the past 
concerning the possibility of an experience or an existence after bodily death, 
those theories have in every case been based on the actual scientific knowledge 
then available. (But surely there are very notable exceptions to this sweep- 
ing generalization ?) We are further exhorted to " wipe out " all inherited 
traditional concepts and beliefs, for these tend to " repress " and blind us to 
new viewpoints and interpretations. (Some of these " traditional formula?," 
however, are freely used by the writer himself in the two succeeding sections.) 
The discussion of the three main types of hypothesis which have been offered 
as explanations of the body-mind relation, two dualistic and one monistic, is 
not particularly illuminating or detailed. 

The constructive part of the paper first suggests that the new conception 
of matter adopted in current physics places science itself in a position to 
support a monistic theory of the nature of the real, hence to put forward an : 
hypothesis of the body-mind relation in accordance therewith. Conscious, 
states may enter as " links into the chain of antecedents and sequences which/ 
give rise to bodily actions." Far from being unintelligible, as Tyndall, Lange, 
and Huxley thought, in view of the re-definition of matter in modern physics, 
it is fully intelligible. Our new knowledge of matter enables us to say that 
" a cerebral atom can be moved by ' thought Any acceptable theory of 
the relation between body and mind must recognize, and make adequate pro- 
vision for (i) the immaterial nature of mind, (ii) the conception of a continuous 
chain of events in the nervous system which determine behaviour, (iii) con- 
sciousness entering into that chain of events, (iv) the fact that volition, feeling, 
and other conscious processes are causes of our actions, (v) the law of correla- 
tion of forces and conservation of energy, (vi) modern physical and chemical 
conceptions of the nature of " matter " and " force," and reconcile them with 
the immateriality of mental processes, (vii) the apparent duality of mind \ 
and matter, and (viii) it must not be incompatible with any known estab- J 
lished fact. / 

We must not forget, as the physicist sometimes does, that electrons are' 
not ultimate entities, but " only phenomenal manifestations of an unknown 



JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHICAL STUDIES 



something," and, "in a sense, only word pictures." The nature of this 
" unknown something," postulated as energy, the physicist cannot even guess 
at : the postulated immaterial entities, electricity, and energy, are not only 
unknown but unknowable by the objective methods of science. These funda- 
mental concepts, all of a non-material stuff, the physicist hands over to the 
physiologist and the psychologist, who are then, according to Dr. Prince, 
in a position to affirm that this immaterial physical energy is the same in 
nature as mind, his reason apparently being that mind does not emerge until 
these immaterial units are assembled into the complex configurations found 
in the nervous system. So " mind is made out of the same immateriality as 
is the phenomenal universe." So all now goes well : the psychologist is made 
to answer that it is all one whether behaviour is explained in terms of neural 
processes or of feeling and volition ; and the physiologist returns the compli- 
ment by admitting that of course consciousness enters into the chain of 
physical events in the nervous system. But the problem arises, How is it, if 
consciousness and " matter " are identical in nature, that consciousness of 
feelings, images, colours, pain, can appear under such different forms as units 
of electricity and electro-magnetic motion ? The answer is said to be " simple 
and obvious," and is tins : " consciousness " (i.e. these " contents ") are 
apprehended through the several senses, therefore it must be apprehended 
" in terms of those senses." So we can now answer the question : Why the 
body has a mind, viz. : " when the marshalling of the units of the immaterial, 
the spiritual energy of the universe, which is the body, reaches a certain com- 
plexity, this immaterial body is the mind." And it is therefrom concluded 
that, if consciousness is the resultant of an enormously complex organization 
of such units, objectively manifested in physics as " matter," when that par- 
ticular organization has become disintegrated by death, the mind itself must 
cease to exist. This, however, Dr. Prince points out, is a conclusion apper- 
taining only to the question of survival of consciousness. Whether there is a 
survival of something else, a soul or self, as distinct from the mind, is another 
matter, and one about which science cannot pretend to any opinion. 

* * * * * 

Professor Leonard Russell works out a decidedly useful scheme of 
symbolism to mediate between that of traditional formal logic and that of the 
new symbolic logic, which, it is claimed, " will enable the logician who does not 
care for the ' algebra ' of logic, and who is repelled by the look of the pages of 
Whitehead and Russell, to solve some of the problems, and appreciate some 
of the points, which symbolic logicians have dealt with in their work." The 
symbolism proposed is of the extremest simplicity, and serves rather to clarify 
than cover the precise nature of logical operations, at several points. All the 
important results proved in the Principia, Part I, Section A, regarding impli- 
cations, are here used. When elementary textbooks on Logic come to be 
re-written and re-cast in a form worthy to represent the present status and 
the recent advances made in the subject, it seems that considerable use might 
be made of this simple and well-thought-out mode of expression. 

* * * * * 

Space precludes more than mention of the completion of two important 
articles in this number of Mind, viz., Mr. Joseph's on Johnson's usage of the 
term ' Proposition,' and Mr. Braithwaite's second article on " The Idea of 
Necessary Connection." Attention is also drawn to Mr. Langford's " Dis- 
cussion " of Singular Propositions. Logicians will find no lack of interest in 
this number. 



THE REVERENCE. 
— •• <g> • •— 

The Buddha left this message :— " You shall pay 

No honor to my relics. Do not take, 

Nor keep, nor cherish them. It will but make 

It harder far to follow in the Way. 

And hinder not yourselves in life's long fray 

By honoring remains. Oh, do not slake 

Your thirst at stagnant waters. For Truth's sake 

Give my dead bones no reverence, I pray. 

But rather grasp the Truth, and practise Thought, 

And seize the Essence of all things at will, 

With Contemplation too ; and then you ought 

To labor for the Good, to shun the 111. 

These are the things that are with gladness 
fraught, 

Most pure, most calm, most radiant and still. 



C. H. Hamgn, 



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A SHORT HISTORY OF WOMEN. By John 
Langdon-Davies. 8jx5ii 361 pp. Jonathan 
I Cape. 10s. 6d. n. 

A sincere, closely reasoned, somewhat Byronic 
book. Mr. Langdon-Davies starts from the posi- 
tion that our own age is witnessing the destrucf ion 
of the myth, based on a misapprehension of the 
sex difference, that woman is both weak and 
dangerous, and his book sets out to show how this 
myth originated and developed through the ages. 
By way of preliminary he lays it down that three 
things are essential if woman is to enjoy her 
proper status — a reverence for fertility, a full con- 
cession of the right to work, and the respect paid 
to a rational being. War, on the other hand, is 
inimical to women because it exalts death over 
Jife. and so is a passionate belief in individual 
immortality because it robs fertility of all signi- 
ficance. From these general considerations Mr. 
Langdon-Davier- parses to a biological survey which 
demonstrates that, while the sex organs them- 
selves are ultimately identical, their actual modifi- 
cations induce differences which are fundamental. 
Hence the " femininity of women is not the pro- 
duct of education or convention. It confronted and 
alarmed the savage so that, though he valued the 
Roman's fertility and provided her with ample 
work, he did not treat her with proper respect and 
often excluded her from important activities of 
:the tribe. 

At this stage Mr. L;mgdon-Davies draws an in- 
teresting distinction. In a primitive community 
devoted to agriculture fertility is all-important.. 
Woman is the symbol of fertility. She is therefore 
honoured in herself and in the person of the ideal 

^Mother Goddess. This was her position in the 
early civilizations of the Near East. But in a 
nomadic community, which is not concerned with 

i fruitful crops and is normally short of food, woman 
who eats but is a poor hand at hunting is regarded 
as a nuisance. Jewish thought was shaped in the 
desert, so that both .Moses and St. Paul are hostile 

'to women; and both of them influenced the 
Christian attitude. Greek thought operated in the 
same way but from a different motive. In Greece 
man became concerned neither with crops nor with 
cattle, but with ideas. They were the children of 
his mind. Women played no part in bearing them; 
and their position therefore sank until they were 
treated as mere agencies of reproduction. 

Under feudalism the position of women im- 
proved. On the whole they were better educated 
than their lords; the administration of convents 
gave scope for their energies; and their ownership 
of property secured them able husbands. The 
Renaissance, with its enthusiasm for life as a whole, 
bettered their lot still further. But now wealth 
made itself their enemy by robbing them of their 
work till at last woman had become a mere colour- 
less Female Character. The industrial revolution 
has forced them from this servitude. To-day the 
theory of Bolshevism and the practice of Capitalism 
are undermining the old family life and placing 
women in an independence which birth control 
serves to strengthen. In the end woman may 
even beat man in the economic struggle, and Mr. 
Langdon-Davies conceives of a future in which the 
old catch-phrase that the^proper place of w oman 

is her home shall be replaced by the equally narrow 
doctrine that the proper place of man is his orlice; 
and the book closes with the suggestion of a Male 
Character as futile as the Female Character, t«. 
which it will logically correspond. 
HOMER LANE AND tup ttttt.f f'OMVrov 

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MISS FARMER'S 

School of Cookery 

«°Z Boston Cooking School 

Miss Alice Bradley, Principal 
30 Huntington Ave., Boston 
Tel. BAC k Bay 9762 

SPRIN G and SI MMER COURSES 

Classes Now Forming for Short Courses 
Classes for Intensive Four and Eight 
Weeks Courses 

Begin in May. June 4. July 2 
Send for Bulletin 



(si)S3t 



CHANDLER- 

SECRETARIAL SCHO'" 

Enroll for Summer Se? 
nt Demand for 

Send for Cat-- 
Vv» KEN 



Being Old 

* LANGSTON HUGHES 
U S ]» cca "sc you are so young.— 
1 1 ou do not understand. 
But we are old 
As the jungle trees 
That bloomed forever 
Old as the forgotten rivers 
nat noued into the earth 
Surely we know what you do not know 
Joy ot living, 
Uselessness of things. 
You are too young to understand vet. 
Build another skvscraper 
Touching the stars. 
We sit with our backs against a tree 
-And watch skyscrapers tumble 
And stars forget. 

Solomon built a temple 
And it must have fallen down 
It isn t here now. 
H e know some things, being old 
ou d o not understand. 



Freedom Seeker 

^ By LANGSTON HUGHES 

I ^ E . a ^'oman with wines 

\ j T ng t0 escape from a ^cage 
And the cage door 

Has fallen on her wings. 

They are long wings 

Vrhich drag on the ground 

hen she stands up. 

Rut she hasn't enough strength 

1 f* pull them away 



265 




Joy 

LAXGSTOX HUGHES 

T WENT to look for Joy. 

A Slim, dancing Joy, 

Gay, laughing Joy, 

Bright-eyed Joy, — 

And I found her 

Driving the butcher's cart 

In the arms of the butcher boy ! 

Such company, such company 
As keeps this young nymph, Joy. 



A FOURTEEN year old young- 
ster, Aubert Williams, is author 
of the following bit of verse. Aubert, 
who was abandoned by his parents, is 
an inmate of the California State 
School for boys, located at Whittier, 
California. 

Thanksgiving 

WHEN the odors from the kitchen 
Tantalizin' and bewitchin' 
Set a feller's palate itchin' 
Aggravate your appetite ; 
When you smell the Turkey bakin', 
See the cake your ma's a makin' 
Covered thick with icy flakin', 
Ain't you dyin' for a bite? 

When the pumpkin, fat and yeller, 
And the cider from the cellar, 
Start appearin' on the scene; 
When you smell the scent o' spices 
An' o' canned fruit cut in slices 

And the freezer's freezin' ices, 
Can you guess what it may mean? 

When you see your Ma's a-bastin- r 
O' the turkey, an' a-tastin' 
O' the luscious pastry pastin 
At this magic time o' year,- _ 
Don't a funny sort o' feelin' _ 
Come into your heart a-stealin', 
Don't you kinda feel like kneelin', 
Givin' thanks— Thanksgivin's here? 



The Study of Literature 

ASUNRISE isnotnew. Yet earh m 

perennially interesdnf 11* ^ S of a 
Legion are the stud,ef f Jl f SUbject ' 
each, if it be adequate, givef ntw^ ?? 
of view, new su^gestionT L P ° mts 
tions. This is notah?v V lns P'>a- 
Dudley's studv, which an lov^s £„Jf* 
ture will read with touJSF%£L2^ 
ago, Miss Dudlev tells S nr SL tlme 
of the University ^oSL^mSK^S 
tor of research at s»f f " d dlrec " 
Columbia. mS^S J 5 * 1 ** 
fessor of literature, asked L V 
of that college "what t-ld^be TeTol 




The American .dollar has varied in real 
value — purchasing power — from thirty- 
eight cents to eighty cents during the 
last ten years. This statement is made 
by Henry Ford in an interview printed 
in the June issue of Plain Talk as part 
of an article on "How Much Is Money 
"Worth?" by John F. Sinclair. "The 
American dollar as a standard of value 
is a ghastly joke," says Mr. Ford. "If 
in building automobiles," he continues, 
"we figured a yard as thirty inches to- 
day and twenty-four inches next month 
and thirty-five inches a year from now, 
how far do you suppose we would have 
gotten in the automobile business? Just 
absolutely nowhere. Yet the world still 
hobbles along with an unstable money 
yard-stick, because the conservative bank- 
ing leaders are not mechanics enongh to 
correct it. Understand I am not a banker. 
I am a mechanic. Neither do I speak as 
a victim of the present system. But as 
a mechanic I want t to say that the 
mechanism of money is old-fashioned; 
that it has not kept up with the scientific 
developments in all the other depart- 
ments of great enterprise." 



The Chamber of Commerce of the 
State of New York 

65 Liberty Street, New York City 

CLASSIFIED LIST OF TRADE AND ALLIED ASSOCIATIONS 
AND PUBLICATIONS IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK 
WITH APPENDIX OF GOVERNMENTAL OFFICES 

{December 1st, 1925) 

The Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York was formed in 
1768 and the charter granted at that time by King George 3rd of Eng- 
land was to "The Chamber of Commerce in the City of New York in 
America." When the United States was established the association was 
re-incorporated under the laws of the State of New York and the name 
changed to the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York. This 
Chamber, however, is not a state-wide institution, but local in character. 
In fact, at this time there is no state Chamber of Commerce in New 
York State, as exists in many other states of the Union. 

The New York Chamber has prepared this pamphlet to serve as a 
guide for those seeking trade information of various kinds or business 
connections in the City of New York. The offices of a trade association 
are obviously headquarters for information upon every matter pertaining 
to the field they cover, and are especially equipped and informed for 
handling inquiries and business opportunities in their respective trades. 

Many associations have business promotion bureaus, foreign trade bu- 
reaus, etc. They quite generally publish monthly or weekly bulletins in 
which business opportunities, domestic and foreign, are given publicity ; 
and they welcome inquiries from those seeking business connections with 
some of their members. 

In each trade, almost without exception, the associations named on the 
following pages have a business office presided over by a secretary who 
is a paid official, devoting all his time to the affairs of his association. 



LISTS OF NAMES 

The Chamber of Commerce does not publish lists of names of those 
engaged in various trades. It should be added that as the Chamber's 
membership is limited to 2,000 individuals, some lines of business have 
few, if any, representatives in its organizaton. 

In 1923 the Federal Census showed 27,493 manufacturing establish- 
ments in the City of New York. From this it must be obvious that the 
publication of classified lists of factories, totgether with the great num- 
ber of wholesale and retail establishments, is a business undertaking 
beyond the scope of activity of any commercial organization. Large 
amounts of capital are employed by several concerns in New York City 
in publishing trade directories and lists of names. The leading directory 
publishers are R. L. Polk & Co., Inc., 524 Broadway, who publish Trow's 
New York City Directory, The New York Business Directory, Copartner- 
ship and Corporation Directory of Manhattan and Bronx, Copartnership 
and Corporation Directory of the Borough of Brooklyn and Queens and 
Trow Alcolm Blue Book. Other well known directories are Thomas' 
Register of American Manufacturers, published by the Thomas Publish- 
ing Co., 120 Lafayette Street; Hendricks' Commercial Register of the 
United States, published by S. E. Hendricks & Co., 2 W. 13th Street. 



2 



Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York 



Lists of names of all kinds can be secured from R. L. Polk & Co., 
Inc., 524 Broadway; Boyd's City Dispatch, 114 East 23rd St., and the 
Business Address Company, 23 Barclay Street. The "Classified Tele- 
phone Directory of New York City" can be secured from The Reuben 
H. Donnelly Corporation, 30 W. 23rd St. 

Copies_ of trade directories, as well as Trow's New York City Direc- 
tory, which has a classified business guide division, can be found in most 
large libraries throughout the United States. 

The various pamphlets which are printed by the Chamber and brought 
up to date from time to time, and can be had upon request, are as follows: 
List of Chambers of Commerce in the United States in All Cities 
of 5,000 Population and over. 

The Chambers of Commerce of the World — Exclusive of the 
United States. 

Classified List of Trade and Allied Associations and Publications 
in the City of New York. 

The City of New York— A. few briefly stated facts of an Economic, 
Historical and Descriptive Character about the City of New York. 

TRADE PUBLICATIONS 

Following the trade associations, etc., in the classified arrangement below, will be 
found the names of publications circulating in the particular field indicated. They 
are a powerful factor in their sphere of activity. Paid advertisements in their col- 
umns often bring results which cannot be obtained otherwise so satisfactorily. Their 
editors are thoroughly acquainted with the business conditions peculiar to the field 
covered by them, and are especially qualified to give advice and information to those 
seeking it. 

In the City of New York there are two very large daily commercial papers; these 
are the Journal of Commerce, 32 Broadway; and the New York Commercial, 38 
Park Row. They print the daily quotations on the stock, cotton, produce, coffee, 
sugar and other exchanges. They also have departments printing the news and quo- 
tations in the chemical, drug, dry goods, building, material, grocery, fruit, and 
other important markets. 

The Monthly Bulletin, published by the Chamber of Commerce of the State of 
New York, is chiefly devoted to recording the proceedings of the monthly meetings. 
It has no advertisements, and does not print any business opportunities. Such no- 
tices would be of little value, because the Bulletin reaches only a few people in 
any trade. The important medium for communication with the trade is the trade 
publications and the bulletins of the trade associations. 

A few organizations are included in this compilation which are not strictly speak- 
ing trade associations, for instance the Research Organizations, Social and Philan- 
thropic Organizations, etc. They are, however, often closely allied with commercial 
affairs, and frequently engage in activities of vital interest to commerce. 

Unless otherwise indicated, the Secretary or executive officer in charge of each 
association is printed in italics; that is, the desire is to list the official in actual 
physical charge and not Honorary Secretaries, etc. 

When the street address of a publication is preceded by (Br.) it is published out- 
side of New York City, and the street address given is the Neiv York branch office. 
ACCOUNTANTS 

Accountants Post of the American Legion; Harold Dudley Greeley, 25 W. 43rd St. 
Am. Electric Ry. Accountants' Ass'n; F. J. West, 8 W. 40th St. 
American Institute of Accountants; A. P. Richardson, 135 Cedar St. 
American Society of Certified Public Accountants; Alexander S. Banks, 50 
Church St. 

Nat'l Ass'n of Cost Accountants; Stuart C. McLeod, 130 W. 42nd St. 
N. Y. Society of Accountants, Inc.; Philip L. Nieser, 150 Broadway. 
N. Y. State Society of Certified Public Accts.; Martin Kortjohn, 110 William St. 
Publications 

"Administration," 20 Vesey St. "Journal of Accountancy," 135 Cedar St 

ADVERTISING (See also Publishers^ 

Advertising Club of N. Y.; Clifton D. Jackson, 23 Park Ave. 

American Association of Advertising Agencies; Jas. O' Shaughnessy, 247 Park Ave. 
Associated Advertising Clubs of the World; Earle Pearson, 383 Madison Ave. 
Associated Retail Advertisers, Sheldon R. Coons, care of Gimbel Bros., 32nd St. 
Association of National Advertisers, Inc.; Robert K. Leavitt, 17 W. 46th St. 
Audit Bureau of Circulation; 152 W. 42nd St. 

Mail Advertising Service Ass'n; James ~W. Gray, 461 Eighth Ave. 
National Premium Advertising Association; (Pres.) V. C. Brown, 114 Fifth Ave. 
New York League of Advertising Women; Miss Minna Hall Simmons, 132 West 
74th St. 

Pan-American Adv. Ass'n; Arthur J. Lang, 38 Burling Slip. 

Public Utilities Advertising Association; Frank Le Roy Blanchard, 60 Wall St. 
Screen Advertisers' Assn.; George J. Z.ehrung, 347 Madison Ave. 
Technical Publicity Ass'n; C. L. Packard, 195 Broadway. 
Window Display Advertisers' Ass'n; Frederick L. Wertz, 8 W. 47th St. 



f~^Jt^JL6^ JUL \JU*_^ ^ <=yr^JL o_J) f^J 
»~A A -«-A_^o- -P. <r-f -A-vi c_t -A 

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JUL <-J^ A i 







M 



/ EIGULTURAL UNEMPLOY- 
I MENT. 

^Sombtimb ago Young India published 
review of a book by Mr. Gregg entitled 
Economics of Khaddar which, judging 
rotn the extracts from the book in the 
eview, is certainly a remarkable pub- 
ication. A number of books have been 
written to advocate the cause of the 
/barkha, but we thiak that Mr. Gregg 
trikes new ground and puts forward 
rguments in its favour which go to i 
npport the almost instinctive realization 
>y Mahatma Gandhi of its great econo- 
mic value for rural India. The 
>ne outstanding problem of India is the 
memployment of the agricultural popula- 
ion for nearly three months in the year, 
land spinning and hand weaving for 
liihed a subsidiary occupation. to millions 
»f agriculturists before the mill made j 
iloth nearly destroyed this industry and | 



[aid a heavy toll on the agricultural popu- 
lation. It was the most important cottage 
ndustry. The extent of the loss caused to 
:he country by the idleness or 
memployment of millions of agricul- 
:ural population for a part of the 
rear and the cumulative effect of this 
loss is not generally I realized. Mr. 
Sregg has estimated that the potential 
nan-power available for Charkha spinning 
nthe rural areas of India for three months 
s equivalent to twice the total power 
.hat is being consumed in the Bombay 
extile mills. But this enormous poten- 
ial man-power remains unutilised. Be 
joints out that the fact that a small group 
)f people can make money profit out of 
nill8 ougM not to blind us to the fact that 
-he losses to the country from wasted 
nan- power may more than offset any 
?ains of the small group. He has 
calculated that 107 million people are un- 
employed at least three months in the 
fear At the rate of three annas, assum- 
ng that to be the average daily wage 
:or the agricultural workers, 107 
nillion people in 90 days would earn 
1.805,625,000. « This may be consi- 
dered the annual cost of unemployment ' 
Jays Mr. Gregg, i among only the agricul- 
tural population of India, exclusive of 
tturma.If divided among the total popula 



*tion,itmakts a port of tax of about Rs 5-7 
1 per capita '. If these unemployed were 
put to spinning and earned only an anna a 
day. they would earn in three months 
Rs. 00,875,000. This should give one an idea 
of the staggering burden of unemploy- 
ment. Mr. Gregg has estimated the ex- 
tent to which this rural unemployment 
is caused by the purchase of foreign cloth. 
He found that in 1925, about one-third 
of the British textile wcrkera were sup- 
ported at the expense of the idleness of 
30 per cent, of the Indian unemployed. 
That would mean tha^ 184,000 British 
workers were kept employed by keepicg 
32 million Indian workers idle. He says 
that when the purchasing power concept 
is employed all over the world.it seems to 
be fairly clear that ' for one nation to try 
' to keep its people employed at the ex- 
pense of people in any <Uher country is 
1 a suicidal policy \ for t it is merely 
' robbing Peter to pay Paul, and pre- 
' sently Peter cannnct buy Paul's goods 
' and Paul ; too ; has to go idle and suffer \ 
This must be the natural consequence 
of continued exploitation. Both Indian 
and British textile mills are finding it 
difficult to find {purchasers for their 
products, for the millions of Indian un- 
employed have not the wherewithal to 
| pay for these and have to content them- 
; selves with the barest provision for cover- 
i ing their nakedness. It is to b9 seen 
' whether the Royal Commission for 
Agriculture has made any recommenda- 
tions for solving this very important 
problem of unemployment of the agri- 
cultural classes for a part of the year, 
which has a very important effect on 
rural economy. 



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keep well. We undergo systematic treatment for 
the purpose of maintaining our health and 
strengthening our bodies. 

The figure seems to carry over to the social fiell. 
Our writers have poor old society stretched out on 
the table and are doing their best to save her. One 
wants to amputate a limb, another wants to take 
out her tonsils, and another lays the entire trouble 
upon the teeth. And in the meantime the patient 
suffers. We must not disparage the efforts of the 
diagnosticians. We need more and better ones. 
But it would seem that we also need preventative 
doctors. 

Instead of always asking the question, what is 
wrong with society? let us change the question 
to what is right with society ? Instead of seeking to 
discover the ailments, let us seek means of strength- ft 
3ning the heart, lungs, and other vital organs. I 
What is good in society ? Well obviously we have / £^i> jT 

>ar schools. Alright, let us strengthen our schools 
md make them better and better. We have the 
•reat potential power of religion. Let us use reli- 
gion as a vital agency in the development of a better 
vorld. We have our social and political organiza- 
10ns. Let us develop them and make them of a 
>etter and higher character. We have much latent 
deahsm, waiting to be captured and turned info 
reative channels. Let us make a bid to enlist this 
leahsm in the service of the nation. 

Let us not lose the critical faculty, but let us 
mphasize still more the faculty of construction. 



Glory has usually been associated with war, 
and in Malory is accompanied by what his 
first critic, Roger Ascham, called {; bold 
bawdry and open manslaughter." That 
glory has no necessary connexion with war is 
clear after a moment's reflection ; for martial 
glory is not essential glory, and we must 
still distinguish glory with grace — as in 
Wolfe and Nelson — from glory with pride — • 
as in Alexander and Napoleon. War occupies 
a privileged position because it alone has 
provided a large number of people with an 
opportunity for disinterested action. That 
is the burden of many apologies for war, such 
as those of Proudhon and Ruskin. War 
allows men to seek glory without pretension, 
in the shelter of a crowd, with the excuse of 
a common cause. As Vauvenargues pointed 
out in one of his maxims, the dominating 
qualities in men are not those which they 
willingly allow to appear, but, on the con- 
trary, those which they hide. " This especi- 
ally applies to ambition, because it is a 
kind of humiliating recognition of the 
superiority of great men, and an avowal of 
the meanness of our fortune or the pre- 



sumption of our spirit. Only those who de- 
sire little, or those who are on the point of 
realizing their pretensions, can be openly 
complacent about such things. What makes 
people ridiculous is a sense of pretensions ill- 
founded or immoderate, and since glory and 
fortune are advantages most difficult to attain, 
they are for that reason the source of the 
deepest sense of ridicule in those who lack 
them." Yauven argues has perhaps more to 
say of good sense on this subject than any 
other moralist ; and because he himself was 
such a fine example of the pure love of 
glory, rather like our Sir Philip Sidney, we 
ought to pay special attention to his analysis. 
His two " Discourses " expound the Greek 
conception of glory, and all he asks is that he 
j nay speak to his friend on this subject as he 
\vould have been able to speak to an Athenian 
of the time of Themis tocles and of Socrates. 
Vauvenargues was writing in the eighteenth 
century in the full blast of La Rochefoucauld's 
cynicism, in an age whose prudent egotism 
was to be expressed by an English poet in a 
verse which unfortunately is as neat as it 
is ignoble : — 

, The paths of glory lead but to the grave. 
— a sentiment -which Vauvenargues had 
anticipated and for which he provided the 
right retort : — 



A la mort, dit-on. que sert la gloire ? .tereponds : 

Que sert la fortune ? que vaut la bcaute ? Les 

plaisirs et la. vert u meme ne linissent-ils pas avec 
la vie ? La mort nous ravit nos honneurs. nos 

tresors, nos joies, nos delices, et rien ne nous suit 
au tombeau. Mais de la qu' osons-nous conclure ? 
sur quoi fondons-nous nos discours ? Le temps 
ou nous ne serons plus est-il not re objet ? Qu'importe 
au bonheur de la vie ce que nous pensons a la mort ? 
Que peuvent, pour adoucir la mort,, la mollesse, 
l'intemperance ou robseurite de la vie ? 

How strange it is, he says, that we should 
have to incite men to glory and prove to 
them beforehand its advantages ! 

. Cette forte et noble passion, cette source ancienne 
et feconde des vert us humaines, qui a fait sortir 
le monde de la barbaric et porte les arts a leur 
perfection, maintenant n*est plus regardee quo 
comme une erreur impmdente et use eclatante 
folie. Les hommes se sont lasses de la vertu ; 
et, ne voulant plus qu'on les trouble dans leur 
depravation et leur mollesse, ils se plaignent que 
la gloire se donne au crime hardi et heureux, et 
n'orne jamais le merite. lis sont sur cela dans 
l'erreur : et. quoi qu'il leur paraisSfe, le vice n'obtient 
point d'bommage reel. 

The '* Discours " from which these passages 
are quoted is a noble piece of eloquence, 
itself expressing the noblest attitude of mind. 
The essential argument is that glory and 
virtue are interdependent ; one cannot exist 
without the other. Tne more virtue men 
have, the more they are entitled to glory ; 
and the nearer glory is to them, the more 
they like it, the more they want it, the more 
. they feel its reality. But when virtue has 
degenerated ; when talent or strength is 
lacking ; when levity and ease govern all 
other passions — then glory seems a long way 
off ; you camiot count on it, or cultivate it, 
so finally men come to regard it as a dream, 
and ignore it. It is much better that we 
should allow ourselves to be led astray by 
this sentiment. What does' it matter if we 
are deceived, since in the process we gain 
talent, feeling, sensibility ? What does it 
matter if we never attain our end, if on the 
way we gather such noble flowers, if even in 
adversity our conscience is serener than that 
of men merely viciously happy ? We are 
reminded again of Unamuno, who expresses 
almost precisely similar thoughts in the book 
from which we have already quoted : — 

Heroic or saintly life has always followed in the 
wake of glory, temporal or eternal, earthly or 
celestial. Believe not those who tell you they seek 
to do good for its own sake, without hope of reward ; 
if that were true, their souls would be like bodies 
without weight, purely apparitional. To preserve 
and midtiply the humar; race there was given us the 
instinct and sentiment of love between man and 
woman ; to enrich it with grand deeds there was 
given us the thirst for glory. 

j Again and again these two authors, so 
typical of the spirit of their diverse countries, 
reinforce one another. In the " Introduction 
a la Connaissance de 1' Esprit Humain " 
Vauvenargues speaks of this same sense of 
the ineluctability of glory :— - 

La gloire nous donne sun les cceurs une autorite 
naturelle qui nous touche sans doute autant que 
nulle de nos sensations, et taous etourdit plus sur 
nos miseres qu'une vaine 1 dissipation : elie est 
done reelle en tous sens. . ) 



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RURAL INDUSTRIES 



THE POPULATION QUESTION 



COMMENT OF THE 
AGRICULTURAL REPORT 



(From A Correspondent.) 
One of the more interesting chapter* 
of the Report of the Royal Commis- 
sion on Agriculture is that which deals 
with Rural Industries and Labour, 
Chapter XVI. It is recalled that the 
Famine Commission of 1S81 observed 
that "the numbers who have no other 
employment than agriculture are great- 
ly in excess of what is really required 
for the thorough cultivation of the 
land," and after comparing the Census 
figures of 1891 and 1921 regarding the 
distribution of Urban and Rural po- 
pulations the Commissioners remark 
that it seems clear that the increase 
in the population and its distribution 
make the observations of the Famine 
Commission even more pertinent to-day 
tha»n when they were made in 1880. 

From the agricultural point of view, 
it is stated, the problem is definitely one 
of superfluity of agricultural labour, 
and some solution must be found to 
lessen the pressure on the land, parti- 
cularly in the belt stretching from the 
Madras Presidency, east and north 
through Bengal, Bihar and the United 
Provinces, where there is excess 
"even after allowance is made for | 
the character of the Indian sea- * 
sons, which forms a short period of \ 
intense activity at seed time and again \ 
at harvest, causing at these times a t 

. demand for agricultural labourers for 
whom, during the remainder of the 
year, there is little or no occupation on 
the land." It is asserted that in- 

j dustries located in rural areas are at 
present unimportant from the point of 
view of their demand on labour and 
the suggestion is made that as a means 
of increasing their demand there 

j should be a multiplication of industries 

J of the ordinary commercial type, such 



as cotton ginneries, rice mills and sugar 
refineries, and the establislynent of new 
industries, such as the manufacture of 
oil-cake and bone-meal and the develop- 
ment of fruit farming. The Commis- 
sion also considers the manufacture of 
pottery might be developed and ex- 
panded; poultry rearing, ft is thought, 
offers a promising opening, while the 
cultivation of lac should receive serious 
attention. 

Although it is pointed out that the 
Commission considers that the oppor- 
tunities for improving the condition of 
the general mass of cultivators by the 
establishment of rural industries are 
strictly limited, caste difficulties are 
merely hinted at. But caste difficulties 
will probably negative any such ven- 
tures as are suggested, for Lohars only 
will offer themselves for employment at 
the implement factories, Telia at the 
oil cake presses, Kumhars at the pot- 
teries, while poultry farming will be 
shunned except by the untouchables. 
Tehs, Kumhars and Lohars find ample 
work at present in villages and do not 
in any large measure contribute to 
the pressure on the land. 

The Commissioners proceed to the 
statement that the essential condition 
for relieving pressure on the land is 
mobility of labour, a point which is ex- 
j amined with what appears to be little 
| insight considering its importance. The 
j tea planters of Assam can take sixty 
r or seventy thousand labourers per an- 
< num and have difficulty in recruiting 
j thirty thousand at enormous expense. 
; let the Commission give no figures of 
j tins demand for labour, but merely 
j co mment on the prohibition of recruit- 
I ing for Assam in the Western districts 
of the United Provinces, recommending 
that the prohibition be withdrawn 
without delay. " Elsewhere," it is 
stated, " control is exercised over aid- 
ed recruitment We re- 

cognize that abuses would arise if all 
control were withdrawn and we content 
ourselves with endorsing the ideal which 
has been set forward that the abolition 
of all restrictions on the movement of 
labour throughout India should be at- 
tained as early as possible, and we re- 
commend that, pending abolition, all 
restrictions should be reduced to a 
minimum." Considering that the 
question of mobility of labour is re- 
garded as an "essential" factor in re- 
lieving pressure on the land, the neglect 
of the Commission to go fully into the 
nature of the restrictions on aided re- 
cruitment is indeed disappointing 



131, Banbury Road, 
Oxford. 

June 36th . 3 928. 



Richard B.Gregg -sc., 
"ear Sir, £ 

I thank you four your letters of April 37 and May 34th . 

and postcard of ft.pl . 25 th . also for the copy of your Look "Economics 

of Kbaddar" which you have Kindly sent me. 

I regret I have of late had little tine or inclination for econon, 

-ics, as I have teen fully occupied with fry scientific wotk which 

I find more interesting. In fact I feel about economics that it 

is-when one has sot tc the bottom of its elabarate make-believes- 
like ' 

rather^ a sucked orange net worth bothering about 

However I hope still to be able to look at your book. Co far as 
I can see your thesis is that even from the engineering point of view 
the revival of hand spinning and hand weaving in a tropical country 
is not necessarily a retrograde step. 

Very few people ha;ve seen thtzt a modern process burning coal or 
other fuel is net necessarily »fl any improvement on an old one utilis 
-ing the revenue of solar energy in sunshine. Prof. Armstro^ the 
chemist has had the hardihood to point out this relative to the 



in 



dig* industry, that you get sunshine fcr nothing and have to pay 



for coal, ouite apart, from th.e economic aspect in its broadest 

j. • r i i <r i t £f Vftor^» of <°ners v to do what you 

that you are dissipa i&r a limi tec^siare oi Bllcl sJ 

can *J%T?e venue. The modern synthetic indigo industry is not 

necessarily an advance on the old natural industry, neither is the 

replacement of the windmills in Holland by electrically operated 

pumoi.g stations necessarily any advance. In the total balance sheet 

it may be the opposite. It is time the economist began, to Know 

something instead of Knowing about everything. I .ish you success m 

your novel and what I fear may be unpopular views. 

Yours s ; ncerely, 



MIAMI UNIVERSITY 
OXFORD. OHIO 

3CRIPPS FOUNDATION FOR RESEARCH 
IN POPULATION PROBLEMS 
Warren S. Thompson 

p. k. whelpton June 9, 1926. 

Mr, Ei chard B. Gregg, 
^otgarh, 3 fcnla Hills, 
India. 

■Dear Mr, Gregg: 

ffnd „v^ 1 /- haVe K J ? 8t *?J ,i * ed M ^ 7our "Economics of Khaddar". I 
find myself m substantial agreement with the whole of your presentation 
I have not been able to so d ivest myself of prepossession Tn ZlTS lto 

ItTtTrt +T C ^\ thRt 1 ™" fully With at •» Points ^ 

think that we ^ take for granted much regarding the efficiency of 
capitalistic industry v^ich is in reality due to having learned how to 
SIS (al ^^ r tr6Va - ant ™ of > ^ ^ored up^esources oTnaLe. 

I Hivl if *V hal i *e forced to do as you say and balance our annual 
intake and outgo of solar energy. 

■+ - The r P ° Wer age " may * e onl;sr an e P is ode in human evolution but to 
us now it is extremely interesting. I am loath to believe that it is 
necessarily all bad or wrong. If we have vision and will make use of power 
for the enlargement of our spiritual life then a new age may be in the 
making, if we will not use "power" for human ends but merely for personal 
enrichiaent then this age will only furnish posterity one more examole of the 
inability of man to be prosperous and human at the same time. It may well 
be that nothing- saps the moral fiber of mankind as rapdily as prosperity as 
the old Hebrew prophets so often lamented. 



*or my own part, I hope that we may learned- to use power to relieve 
us of the drudgery and of the fear of want and thus give us time to ponder 
the ultimate realities" of life. Perhaps this is a vain hone. I certainly 
cannot point to many facts in current American life that lead one to believe 
we are learning to use our leisure for spiritual as apposed to personal en- 
richment of life, ^any times in my work I utterly condemn the hustle, the 
crowding, the competitive consumption and the gross materialistic measures of 
value whichwe follow. I feel that we are missing certain things tte t the 
Jrient could give us but I also feel that we have some things from v,hich the 
Orient could profit. 

How much less materialistic is the Indian peasant than the American 
farmer? What part of the Indians have achieved a truly integrated personality? 
I do not mean to excuse our faults; I only wonder whether the poverty of 
Indian life is not almost, if not altogfaiher, as stifling as the prosperity of 
life with us. u f course, we are not all prosperous ,as you know. 

In regard to the decentralization of industry, I am wholly of your 
opinion if I understand you rightly. It is one of my pet ideas that the 
modern city is probably the greatest mistake mankind has ever made. I am inclined 
to believe that it is not only eco nomical jry inefficient, but that it is racially 
deaflly. If within the next century our large cities are at all broken up it 



SCRIPPS FOUNDATION FOR RESEARCH 
IN POPULATION PROBLEMS 
Warren s. Thompson 
P, K. Whelpton 

will be on the ground that they are economically inefficient, not because 
tfeey are racially deadly, With all our Belief in white superiority there 
are scarcely a handful of people in this country who really feel that 
racial survival is a vital matter or that the good features of our present 
social order can only be made clearly manifest if adapted to racial needs. 
Such is the inconsistency or shallowness of our th inking. (?) . 

This is a rather rambling and, I fear, incoherent letter but I 
wished to express my appreciation of your book. 1 believe too, that I 
understand your general point of view and am wholly in s;ympathy with it. 
1 presume that the race has to find its way in the maze of possibilities 
in this worid and work out its salvation in much the same way that each of 
us must do. It is a long, tedious and sometimes discouraging process with 
no end but it is the way of life. '±?here is no shortcut. 



Yours very sincerely, 




MIAMI UNIVERSITY 
OXFORD, OHIO 



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A Thought for the Day. 

^^ ,K N l Mil 'UN l i 

Mahatma Gandhi, frail i body and deyoid 
of material resources, should call up the 
immense power of the meek that has been 
&*ng waiting in the heart f the destitute 
fid insulted humanity of India." 

HABIXDltAXATH TAGORFi 
n lham 



Speaking Realities 



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comes ba° k he tv " ? his breat " 
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m i the best evidences a man [ hese are 

°- -id somettn* 'Tat T ""i 
I time to say. — Holmes. " was j 




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bargain. From Helsingfors to Sicily, it is firmly believed 
that public life in England has developed a class of men 
who, behind the blank and stolid masks which they affect, 
have subtle intelligences which can not be surpassed in 
the quick give-and-take of official negotiations. Perhaps 
it is a myth without foundation. Perhaps a careful study 
of international affairs for the last century would show 
that the English have been bamboozled at many a confer- 
ence-table; still, a glance at a map of the world would 
seem to suggest that they have fared quite well, and once 
in a while we get an interesting bit of English candour on 
the subject. For example, Mr. Wilfrid Sea wen Blunt, in 
his "Secret History of the English Occupation of Egypt," 
describes his conversations back in 1882 at Cairo with 
Sir Auckland Colvin, a hard, cold, practical and highly 
successful Anglo-Indian administrator. Says Mr. Blunt: 
"Colvin was sometimes astonishingly frank in speech. 1 
remember his telling me, on one occasion, when we were 
talking of Eastern duplicity, that it was a mistake to sup- 
pose that in this the Orientals were our masters. An Eng- 
lishman who knew the game, he said, could always beat 
them with their own weapons and they were mere children 
in deceit when it came to a contest with us." 



/ 



The papers t« 
""^nilla, right 



But these plays have hitherto always been plays in which the 
human characters were interested in ideas and flung these ideas 
back and forth and discussed them and, at times, tried to live by 
them In "Masse Mensch" the idea itself steps forth— terrible, 
gigantic, overwhelming. And the idea is dramatic, because it 
holds at its core one of the rooted antinomies of which the uni- 
verse is built. The idea is dramatic because, rightly thought 
upon, the universe is so. Think far enough in any direction 
and you come upon a hopeless contradiction, a conflict that is 
from the beginning and nature of things. Hegel built up his 
whole dialectic to harmonize these contradictions. The average 
man says "God" and thinks that he has driven conflict out of 
the universe. Alas, it is at home there. 

This fact has been known to thinkers since the days ot 
Job. It has been known to dramatists, too. But their knowledge 
of it, except in the cases of Hebbel and Shaw, was always an 
instinctive one and did not rise into the operative artistic con- 
sciousness. It rose into Toller's consciousness because he lived 
the idea which he has here dramatically projected. It is well 
known that he took part in the Munich Communist revolution 
under Kurt Eisner and is still in prison. He is no less a Com- 
munist today because he has transcended Communism no less 
an impassioned friend of mankind because he sees most clearly 
today the hopelessness of its struggle-the hopelessness which 
arises from this fact: If you use force, you incur guilt; if you 
do not use force you are destroyed by those who use it That is 
the dramatic idea of "Masse Mensch"; it is the most dramatic 
of all ideas, the most catastrophic for the entire race. 



The play shows a White Terror in full operation: war. 11 3 

hunger, industrial slavery. The masses rise, tempted to insti- 
tute a Red Terror, partly as revenge but more largely to make 
the revolution prevail. But that is only exchanging murder for 
murder, oppression for oppression, guilt for guilt. The voice of 
the Woman who is the tragic conflict within the idea rises in 
great accents of compassion, of despair, of accusation of the 
Eternal who has cursed man with force and therefore with guilt. 
The masters, of course, try to turn the antinomy that is at the 
root of things to their advantage and try to differentiate their 
guilt from that of the rising masses. The Woman, though she 
goes to her death rather than be liberated by force and rejoin 
the revolutionaries, is not to be corrupted. Though guilt cannot 
rectify guilt nor murder atone for murder the masters are the 
more responsible. They taught the ntasses war and slavery. 

I have worked out the central idea. It has corollaries. Un- 
der capitalism there is a lean and shriveled possibility for the 
individual mind. The masses wish to obliterate the individual. 
Salvation cannot lie that way. Only personality is saving. Yet 
who shall blame the masses for having learned their long lesson 
that, as far as they are concerned, personalities mean not wisdom 
and goodness but power and so oppression, sweat, and blood? 

The seven scenes of the play stand forth like the shadows 
of the great gallows in one of them — somber, grandiose, against 
an eternal background. Never has Lee Simonson's imagination 
shown an equal union of reach and intellectual rectitude. Miss 
Yurka. as the Woman, is indeed sibyl, prophetess, and embodied 
idea and conscience. But excellent above both the scenes and 
the individual players are the speaking choruses of men and 
women. These not only achieve both clearness and a necessary 
tragic hardness of sneech: they are magnificent pictorially and 
rhythmically. They sway and slant and dance to the very music, 
the timeless iron music, of the idea that both uplifts and kills. 

A great play greatly produced. It will have only a very- 
brief run. In the opening scenes the audience was scared. 
What? Was the Guild brazenly indulging in Bolshevist propa- 
ganda? That iras going far. Later when Toller repudiates 
the use of force by revolution, there was a distinct feeling of 
relief. No one identified himself with the masters and bankers. 
Still, why be disturbed at all? As a portly lady said on the w?v 
out after a deep breath of relief that this bad business was 
safely over: "We'll have to educate the common people. That's 
■BL . . Ludwig Lewisohn 




4 



u 

r 




ASPECTS OF SCIENCE, 



ence and Civilization. Edited by F. S.- 
Marvin. (Oxford University Press* 
London : Milford. 6s. net.) 
e and Science. By D. Eraser Harris. 
(Popular Edition.) (Melrose. 3s. 6d. net.) 
>s a useful classification we may say that 
body of any science consists of principles, 
is and facts. The expounder of science for 
men usually writes on one or another of 
se aspects of his science. The great bulk of 
>ular sc ientific writing deals, of course, with 
s. We are told how many millions of mole- 
?s there are in a cubic centimetre of water, 
distances of the stars, and of the marvellous 
vs in which orchids are fertilized. Some- 
lg of the wonder of the universe is thereby 
ught home to the layman ; but the chief 
ct of such information seems to be to in- 
jpse credulity. The mind, when sufficiently 
uncd by marvels, finds nothing too marvel- 
S to believe. The world becomes, strictly 
aking, miraculous ; the layman deems all 
igs to be possible. One of the chief objects 
icience, to exhibit the world as ordered, is 
I lifted. The recital of a list of startling but 
sonriected facts has the practical effect of 
king the world seem a chaos. Popular 
iters on biology have exceptional tempta- 
ns to write in this vein, for the simple reason 
it their universe, compared with that of the 
^isicist or chemist, is not yet a particularly 
11-ordered one. The few indisputable prin- 
)les that have been discovered in biology 
11 leave vast regions of phenomena unex- 
ained. The temptation to be merely pic- 
Jesque is reinforced by the difficulty of being 
lything else. 

Dr. Harris's book would have to be classed as 
liefly a collection of facts, but his facts are 
cceptionally well chosen and marshalled, 
hus he tells us that the wings of the house- 
| vibrate 330 times per second, that the heart 
>ats seventy-two times per minute, and the 
pun normally bends to and fro ten times per 
cond. But these facts are part of a chapter | 
i vital rhythms, and illustrate a very im- 
>rtant. although little understood, aspect of 
r e. The chapter on Coloured Thinking is 
iarer to being a mere collection of oddities 
an any other in the book. It points out that 
me people see numbers, months of the year, 
id other things, as coloured ; but in the 
>sence of any explanation these facts, as 
elated facts, excite a merely transient curio* 
ty. The last chapter, however, on Science 
ld 1 Faith-healing, throws light on the great 
oblem of the relations of the body and the 
md, and gives the reader information of 
fctnanenl value. 

Undoubtedly the most important scientific 
formation that can be communicated to a 
vman is knowledge of scientific principles 



and ideas, and by far the best technique of 
exposition is the historical method. Scientific 
ideas are often very refined abstractions. To 
one not habituated to the atmosphere in which 
they flourish they are often elusive or even 
unintelligible. To present them for instant 
acceptance is bound to lead to misunderstand- 
ings, which is why so many writers have hailed 
the discoveries that " matter is energy " and 
that " all things are relative " with quite mis- 
placed enthusiasm. But, if the reader is ac- 
quainted with the successive refinements by 
which the ideas attained their present form, 
they will no longer be ambiguous to him. To 
expound the history of any great scientific 
idea is not only an excellent way of making 
the idea clear, but it also shows the relations 
between science and other human activities. 
Science ceases to be a magical process for the 
discovery of marvels. More than half the 
essays in " Science and Civilization " deal with 
the history of one branch or another of scien- 
tific thought. The origin and development of a 
number of scientific problems is made clear, 
and we see from what a variety of alternative 
explanations the true solution finally emerged. . 
We see science as a human and fallible enter- 
prise ; and we also see what patience, in- 
genuity and untiring devotion to truth have 
gone to assure the most firmly established of 
its conclusions. It becomes a tentative order- 
ing of experience, subject to certain special 
dangers, but deserving, nevertheless, of more 
confidence than any of the systems of thought 
it has replaced. 

Its special dangers are made clear in 
Professor Whitehead's brilliant essay on 
" The First Physical Synthesis." No science 
has been more firmly established than the 
great science of mathematical physics, of which 
Galileo and Newton are the two most distin- 
guished founders. It is the ideal of all the 
other sciences. It is the final justification of 
the whole scientific adventure. And neverthe- 
less, as Professor Whitehead points out, all its 
leading principles and ideas are to-day in the 
melting-pot. Nothing could seem more firmly 
based than its assumptions, nothing more 
assured than its triumph. And yet to-day its 
assumptions are in process of being abandoned 
and all its fundamental concepts are being re- 
cast. The special danger of science, which we 
have only now realized, is the danger of ex- 
cessive abstraction. The concrete fact is re- 
placed by a set of abstractions ; and the danger 
is that the abstractions may prove inadequate, 
even for the purposes of science, to express the 
concrete fact. Other sciences have the same 
history. The early medical men, as this volume 
shows, unduly simplified the human body. In 
biology the theory of natural selection has 
been shown to be not enough, as have the asso- 
ciation theories in psychology. Everywhere 
the reality shows itself richer than our diagram 
of it. The modern scientific universe is cer- 
tainly infinitely richer than the old universe 
compounded of four elements, but it is not 
vet rich enough. The final synthesis will prob- 



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_.~w x.. ^ fulfill'd, o. 

"wikTij. ^lill'd, the besv jh »;>rt of the vH^ . small band of tk. 

dearest frieiVis and upholders ever vouchsax\ Cse) is that, unstopp'd 

and unwarp'd by any influence outside the to'v _ie, I have had my say 

entirely my own way, and put it unerringly on —the value thereof to be 
decided by time. 

And number two proud Purpose: 

I say the profoundest service that poems or any other writings can do for 
their reader is not merely to satisfy the intellect, or supply something polish'd and 
interesting, nor even to depict great passions, or persons or events, but to fill him 
With vigorous and clean manliness, religiousness, and give him good heart as a 
radical possession and habit- . . . Without yielding an inch the working-man 
and working-woman were to be in my pages from first to last 

The fact, I insist again, remaining solid and clean amid the critical 
bogs, of the man who wrote the lines which one of Father Tribune's 
printers — craft brother he in the guild to which Whitman belonged* — promised 
me should be sec in some kind of type that would " smack 'em in the eye " 
(meaning your eyes); the lines, to come to the point, which appear at the top 
of this little piece. 

The fact, also, of the man whose work many good craftsmen said an< 
; :uly thought, was formless and shiftless, but the man whose set of rules for 
his craftsmanship was thus austere and exacting: (You see, I am trying 
oarly to crowd in some of the Whitman extracts I have been making this j 
week lest, as usual in these articles, four-fifths of them go " hell-box "-ward, j 
as printers call that grim depository of unused type; am trying to crowd in as j 
rriany of the veritable Whitman words as possible because I think that Whit- ' 
man's point of view on his work, overwrought, even flamboyant as it often is, 
is still the essential point of view on Whitman), The man, then, whose rules 
by himself and for himself were thus austere and exacting: 
Make no quotations, and no reference 

to any other writers. 
Lumber tbe writing: with nothing — let 

it go as lightly as the bird flies in the 
air or a fish swims in the sea. 



Avoid all poetical similes; be faith- 
ful to the perfect likelihoods of nature 
—healthy, exact, simple, disdaining orna- 
ments. 



flush, natural works. 

Insert natural things, indestructiblee. 
idioms, characteristics, rivers, states, per- 
sons. &c Be full of strong sensual 
germs. 

Poet ! beware lest your poems are made 
in the spirit that comes from the 6tudy of 
pictures of things — and not from the 
spirit that comes from the contact with 



Do not go into criticisms or argu- j real things themselves, 
inents at all; make full blooded, rich. 

Old John Burroughs thought those rules so requisite to the attainment 
of the right point of view on Whitman that he included them In his ex- 
cremely compact Britannica article about the poet. j j 

W r hat, now, proceeded from some forty years of patient, valiant observ- ; j 
iince of those rules? — I count from tbe early fifties of the nineteenth century, : 
when " Leaves of Grass " began to take clear form in Whitman's mind, to ; 
the first two years of the nineties, when he was still revising. 

This kind of thing, among some other kinds, proceeded from that observ- j 
ance: (We are reading from the dozen pages of that tremendous "Song of i 
the Broad-Axe," which comes about one-third of the way in the 500 pages ( \ 
of " Leaves of Grass "): 

Where the city stands with the brawniest breed of orators and bards: [•; 
Where the city stands that is belov'd by these, and loves them in return, and j ; 

understands them; j; 
Where no monuments exist to heroes, but tn the common words and deeds, ( ; 

Where thrift is in its place, and prudence is in its place; 

Where the slave ceases, and the master of slaves ceases; 

Where the populace rise at once against the never-ending audacity of elected • 
persons : 

Where fierce men and women pour forth, as the sea to the whistle of death pours \ 

Us sweeping and unript waves; 
Where outside authority enters always after the precedence of inside authority; j 

Where equanimity is illustrated in affairs; 
Where speculations on the soul are encouraged; 

Where the city of the faith fulest friends stands; 
Where the city of the cleanliness of the sexes stands; 
Where the city of the healthiest fathers stands; 
Whete the city of the best-bodied mothers stands, 
There the great city stands. 

Now, I left out the fifth verse from the beginning of that passage as it j 
stands in the text not because I wanted to cheat — Whitman is a poor place 
to begin that in — but because I wanted to take it up by itself. That verse j 
reads: 



2 l 



In that short line — a short one for Whitman — is the source of seventy 
years of trouble ; a trouble that searched out the vitals of Vrhitmari s enemy 
critics with a good deal sharper pang than it did his capacious ones. CDon'i de- ; 
iiver it!" squealed James Russell Lowell to ar, English rcble who had brought 
a letter of introduction to Whitman. " Don't deliver it! Do you kncnr who 
Walt Whitman is? Why — a rowdy, a New York tough a loafer, a frequenter 
of low places — friend of cab drivers: • Whitman did wart men to ~ think 
lightly of the laws" when "the laws "* m ear. t hide-binding negulations; meant 
rules and orders and traditions and superstitions that cast fresh cr.com. r^: 
exultant human material into the same mold that had held long gone genera- 
tions of men. The fact remains, and it is one of the glories of his strange 
life, life at once so majestic and so " queer." as the saying is, that he was 
essentially servant and soldier and celebrant of the essential laws — laws 
having to do with human freedom en masse and with individual liberty. That 
he was such a servant, soldier and celebrant he proved at dear cost. He 
served in the most exacting and least exhilarating way for nearly three years 
to help enforce such laws. He served — served with his hands and eyes — I 
patriots and rebels and white men and black men in the Union hospitals. 
And because he was tireless, and because he would let himself be r-tvolted 
by no task however sickening, he laid the foundations of a disease thai , 
wrecked the remainder of his physical la'e and. during a considerable tart of 
that remainder, kept him prisoner to a wheeled chair. He was for law, all t 
right, just so long as it fostered and was compatible with T..-hat r- v — air: 
ever serving and celebrating — " the dear love of comrades."' And by com- j 
rades be meant not individuals alone, but cities, states, kingdoms, republics- 
Lowell- was right. For .Whitman did also mean "dear comradeship " of and ' 
with cab drivers, of and with ' frequenters of low places,*' and to them he j 
said in his divine- rugged compassion. "When the sun ihuts you cut I will 
shut you out-** 1 

Many things about Whitman are taken for granted by persons who have 
read essays about him but who never gave half a day 5 exact attention t: 
Whitman's Leaves." But one of the things about Whitman that emphatically 
is not to be taken for granted is that he was an" un discriminating lover and 
celebrant of ** the dear comradts." He had. indeed, a goodly screak of aristo- 
crat in him. He came of a family that is numbered among the Caucasian 
families longest planted in our northern soil. He was unusual and not dandi- 
fied In dress, but he was extremely fastidicus as to the cleanliness of his person 
and raiment. When he used the word " radical,-'' as he does use it in the thir 1 
of the credo passages quoted above, he used it, not socially or politically, but 
in its original Latin significance — radix meaning root And he could, upon 
occasion, be regally intolerant :.= in his at palling 'diatribe cn Samuel Johnson. 
He loved, and he proclaimed that he was writing for. " the average man," but 
he did not like average qualities or average poetry, and in the "' Boughs " 
credo be declares the mission of " these states/" as he lo-ed to call his country. 



-nest the Interminable average fallows of humanity— 
:: me co miner, sense — is the justification and main 



to be— 

. . . ploughing up i 
not " good government " 
purpose of these United _ „ 

One of the quaintest f.r.ds in literature was the discovery of written proof 
of his consciousness that " these states " and the " dear comrades " Lad a great 
deal of plowing still to do. That proof was a scrap of paper found on the 
floor of the forlorn he use in Mickle street. Camden, where he passed the last 
decade of his life. Horace Traubel found it, gave it finally to Newton of the ; 
** Amenities." and Newton, having used its text as a Christmas card in a panic 
year of our annals, reproduced it in his collection called ' A Magnificent 
Farce." The scrap of paper bore these wordst 

Go on. my dear Americans, whip your horses to the utmost— excitement ! money! 1 
politics :— open all >our valves and let her go — swing, whirl with t 1 1 e~ ' re? * — v c> u * 1 ! 
soon get under such momentum you can't step if you would, unlv r skr prov.sior! 
betimes, o]d states and new states, for several thousand insane asylums- You arc 
in a fair way to create a whole natioi: of 1 jr-iatics. 

Horace Traubt! gave the old man a sly look as he read that out, and the 
old man replied to the look with. "That's old, lad. and kind o' violent — don't 
you think? — for me. Yet I don : know but it still holds good.** 



Walt Whitman. A Study and a Selection. 
Bv Gerald Bullett. " (Grant Richards. 
15s. net.) 

Mr. Bullett's portrait and estimate of Whit- 
man is singularly well balanced, comprehen- 
sive, and readable. His selection, too, which 
is of an original kind, is well made. It con- 
tains only twelve of the poems, but they are 
all representative and all good. " Leaves of j 
Grass," which Whitman proclaimed to be an 
artistic unity, and which, for those who are 
prepared to ponder over it, has certainly a 
significant cohesion and an accumulating 
power, must affect most readers as a trouble- 
some and fatiguing, as well as a disconceiting. 
work. Many already prefer the reduced 
version printed by the Oxford University 
Press in their edition of l ' World's Classics ?! 
and thoughtfully edited by Professor de 
Selincourt. Others may feel that even this 
contains too much and that a sample of 
Whitman, provided it be taken from his really 
strong and succulent work, will be enough for. 
them. .Such a selection exisis in French, ' 
among the *' Editions de la Xouvelle Revue 
Francaise,"' with remarkable versions of the 
poems by Andre Gide and others. Mr. 
Bullett gives us another, and on a still smaller j 
scale. He recognizes that in the " Song of i' 
Myself " Whitman gave rt once the core of ' 
his message (it is useless to boggle at the 
word : Whitman conceived of poets as men 
with messages, and for himself his message 
was his inspiration) ; he prints the ** Song of 
Myself," then, in its entirety, as being " Leaves 
of Grass " in miniature, and after it the "Song 
of the Open Road," " Crossing Brooklyn 
Ferry," " 4 Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rock- 
ing " — in a word, a series of the really great 
things. It is not very difficult to find them, 
if one is content with so few; but it is pleasant 
to have them, and to have them beautifully 
printed on good paper in a tasteful and attrac- 
tive volume. These are luxuries which 
readers of Whitman must usually forgo. 

As a critic Mr. Bullett has no very signifi- 
cant contribution to make. He avoids the 
pitfall of enthusiasm, into which too many of 
his predecessors have fallen; but then he has 
a somewhat unfair protection, in the fact that 
^yhitman's mysticism has little appeal to him. 
The " Calamus ; ' poems he dismisses as 
" mawkish," which is as much as to say that 
he does not understand them. But there was 
room for an estimate of " Leaves of Grass " 
from a common-sense standpoint, where 
nothing would be glozed over, nothing fined 
away, and nothing transfisrured. This is 
what Mr. Bullett provides. 

Whitman [lie writes] was not primarily an 
artist, lie was not consciously an artist ; ' for. 
although he took conscious paiiis with his work, 
he lacked the artist's equipment ; when his work 
escapes from the realm of graphic journalism to 
that of literature, it has the air of achieving that 
escape, in spite of its author, by virtue of its 
sheer strength of thought or depth of passion. lii< 
successes are the more miraculous when we te- 
memher that he had at his command no verr con- 
siderable technical resource*. . . . He moves us 



sometimes profoundly, but seldom aesthetically. 
It is easy to catch Mr. Bullett's drift here. 
Yet what, after all, is an artist if not a man 
who has somehow found a means of communi- 
cating to others the strength of his thought 
and the depth of his passion ? Whitman was 
in this respect no artist that he inherited no 
technique, and knew no more than a 
schoolboy of the processes by which poetry is 
ordinarily written. But something even more 
essential to art he did inherit. There ran in 
his veins, with the Anglo-Saxon blood there, 
the belief that in all art. and e^-peciallj- in 
literature, it is the idea which really counts, 
and he had enough perception, confidence and 
loyalty to know that his own ideas were in- 
compatible with any traditional technique, 
and that he. at least, was incapable of using 
any for their expression. He therefore set out 
to invent a medium to suit his purposes, 
sustained by the resolve to cast out or it all 
literary flavours and associations, and refusing 
to call the very days of the week by t heir- 
names. It is paradoxical to assert that a man 
who attempted and succeeded in such a task 
was no artist. He was an artist as few men 
have ever been, standing secure on his own 
feet, defying all rules and conventions for the 
sake of a vision of a reconstituted life. 

This vision is, as he proclaimed that it 
would be found to be, the soul of the Ameri- 
can people. Whitman is little read in 
America and is totally without influence there; 
his profound spiritual identity with his race, 
its attitude, and its ideals is only on that 
account more remarkable and more important. 
With America lies, after all, the future of the 
world; with her are, at present, the most fruit- 
ful opportunities for expansion and experi- 
ment in spiritual things. If human life is to 
be changed for the better new reserves of 
power must somehow be brought into action ; 
and our trouble in the Old World is that our 
human material, like all the rest of our 
material, is exploited. We have made every 
possible mistake and encumbered ourselves 
with all the resulting inhibitions. The Ameri- 
cans constantly attempt anew things which we 
are prevented from attempting by memories 
of previous failure; they attempt and they 
succeed. This atmosphere of a community 
of men strong in the joyous and generous con- 
fidence of youth pervades Whitman's poetry 
and is the source of its invigoration. Here 
we are weary of machinery, we have begun to 
wonder whether, after all, men have souls, 
whether the whole world is anything better 
than a revolving mill-wheel. But in America, 
as in " Leaves of Grass," there can never be 
machinery enough, so strong is the soul. Give 
me more wheels, and ever more, says Whit- 
man, and let them revolve for me with ever- 
increasing swiftness that at last I may encircle 
the world and humanize it and conquer it for 
Faith and Hope and Love. 



Thus pure mathematics and astronomy are the most exact of all 
sciences, and in ascending degrees (for the sake of illustration 
merely) medicine, political economy, and psychology the least. 
The reason is obvious. Pure mathematics is exact because it rests 
on mental concepts which, from the very constitution and opera- 
tion of the mind, can neither vary nor be impugned. It is in 
reality a repetitive process of verification, for, however involved, 
every conclusion is more or less given in the premisses. If the pro- 
position be truly understood, and the appropriate formulae known, 
the conclusion must inevitably be reached and be the same for all 
minds capable of understanding. Astronomy is, within its own 
limitations, exact (whatever we may think of the profuse use of 
immensities and infinities made by astronomers) precisely for the 
same reason. I need not dwell here on the radical confusion 
between space and time as equivalently and qualitatively iden- 
tical a priori conditions of all our mental activities, which this age 
owes principally to Kant, because such trifles probably do not 
trouble astronomers. But when we reflect upon what the most 
advanced astronomy really adds to our positive knowledge of 
heavenly bodies and stellar space and beyond the recurrent and 
regular movement of the former, which, while predictable by 
astronomers, would be just as perceptible when they occurred 
without such predictions, we may begin to realise how meagre it 
is and how dependent for its validity upon the exclusion of any- 
thing in the least or remotely resembling causality. 



( 




The Review of Nations 



AN ORGAN FOR PAN-HUMANISM AND SPIRITUAL FREEDOM 

Founder and Editor 
FELIX VALY1 

OUR FIELD OF RESEARCH 

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF NATIONS—THE SOCIOLOGY OF RELIGIONS 
SCIENCE AND METAPHYSICS— PROBLEMS OF WORLD CULTURE 
WORLD POLITICS AND WORLD ECONOMICS 
SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN EUROPE AND IN ASIA 
THE TEACHINGS OF OLD CIVILIZATIONS 
THE GREAT SPIRITUAL LEADERS OF MANKIND 



The Editorial Board selects the subjects and authors of all articles whirh 
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Compition Challenged. 

THE CHEAPEST BENARES SILK ( HOUSE ) 

We manufacture at our own work-shops at Banares 
under special care, all sorts of Benares make Safas, Sarie 8 
Patals, Cholikhands ( Jacket pieces ) Dhoties, Chadders, 
Scarves, Shoe-brocades Dilkush Handkerchief etc., of 
diffrent Varieties. 

Trial order solicited. 

Head Office. ^ branch office 

| Md. Ismail Hdji Abdul Hakim 

144 Pandehouli Y Benaraswala. 

j Samset Street, Chippi Chawl Shop No. 8 
Benars City. J BOMBAY 2. 



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LIST OF BOOKS ON BUDDHISM. 



NAME AND AUTHOR. PRICE 

The Gospel oi Buddha by Dr. Paul Cams. Paper Binding ... ... 1 8 

Do. do. Cloth Binding ... ... ... ...3 

Do. do. Illustrated ... ... ... ... 3 4 

Buddhism and its Christina Crities ... ... ... 

Buddhism for Children Part 1, The Life of the Buddha, by Christina 

Albers ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Amitabha, Cloth Bind, by Dr. Paul Carus ... ... ... 1 4 

Nirvana, by Dr. Paul Carus ... ... ... ... 2 4 

Light of Asia, Cloth Bind, by Arnold ... ... ... ... 2 4 

The Dharma, by Paul Carus ... ... ... ... 1 

Pancha Sila, the five precepts, by the Bhikku Silachara ... ... 12 

The four Noble Truths, by the Bhikku Silachara ... ... ... 9 

The Noble eightfold Path, by the Bhikku Silachara ... ... 12 

The Smaller Buddhist Catechism, by C. \V. Leadbeatcr ... ... 6 

The Golden Rules of Buddhism, compiled from the Bana Books, 

by Henry S. Olcott. ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Buddhist Rules for the Laity, by D. J. Sabhasinha ... ... 6 

Karma, a story, of Buddist Ethics, by Paul Carus ... ... 14 

Buddha Lila Sara Sangraha, Professor Dharmanand Kosambi (Marathi.) 1 3 

Digha Nikaya. by Professor C. V. Rajwade 1st Vol. (Marathi) ... 1 8 

Bhikshuni Ratne, by Professor N. K. Bhagwat (Marathi) ... ... 1 4 

Buddha Lila Sara Sangraha, by Prof. Dharmanand Kosambi (Gujrathi) ... 2 2 

Buddha Parva. by V. G. Apte (Marathi) ... ... ... 1 8 

Shri Buddha Charitra. by Mr. Manilal Doshi (Gujrathi) ... ... 10 

Bhagwan Buddha, by Girja Shankar Bhagvvanji Adheka (Gujrathi) ... 2 

What did the Lord Buddha Teach ? by the Anagarika Dharmapala ... 4 

Buddhism in its Relationship with Hinduism, .by Do. ... ••• 4 

GodofHoreb Do. ... ... 4 

Literary History of Sanscrit Buddhism, by G. K. Xariman ... 

The Life and Teachings of Lord Buddha, by Anagarika Dharmapala ... 12 

Buddhism in Translations, by H. C. Warran ; Cloth Gilt Binding ... 5 

The Buddha and his Doctrine, by C. T. Strauss ... ... 3 

Buddha and Buddhism, by Arthur Lillie ... ... ••• 3 8 

Laghu Patha, by Prof. Dharmanand Kosambi (Marathi) ... ••• 5 

Samadhi Marga (Marathi and Gujrathi Cloth Gilt Binding ... 

Nivedana (Marathi) Cloth Gilt Binding 



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Height 

By Anne Spencer Morrow 

When I was young I felt so small 
And frightened, for the world was tall. 

And even grasses seemed to me 
A forest of immensity 

Until I learned that I could grow, 
A glance would leave them far below. 

Spanning a tree's height with my eye, 
Suddenly I soared as high, 

And fixing on a star I grew, 

I pushed my head against the blue ! 

Still, like a singing lark, I find 
Rapture to leave the grass behind. 

And sometimes standing in a crowd 
My lips are cool against a cloud. 



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\^ ARTHUR J PENTY, 
ARCHITECT. 

HOUNSLOW 1934. 



L.R.I.B.A. 



59, CHURCH STREET, 
ISLEWORTH, MIDDLESEX. 

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1 



ALBERT FAR WELL BEMIS 



BOSTON, MASS 

Boston, Massachusetts 
June 28, 1928 
AFB/H 



Bichard B. Gregg, Esq., 
c/o E. S. Stokes, 

Kotgarh, Simla Hills, 
India. 

My dear Richard: 

My abilities as a critic are certainly pretty feeble. 
For months now I have been planning and hoping for time adequately 
to analyze and then to write you about "Economics of Khaddar." 
As matters stand now in less than twenty-four hours I shall be in 
transit to New York and the Panama Canal to California, and with 
all my packing still to do. There is some possibility, but very 
slim, that before I leave to-morrow I can go somewhat into a 
critical analysis of your work. Here I am simply going to make 
two or three brief comments on it in order that you may know that 
I have not overlooked your suggestion of a criticism and my promise 
of one. 

By the way, I notice in CAPITAL which we get in the office 
one M. S. Bhumgara is reviewing your book,- or from the two numbers 
I have seen I should judge it might be that he is abstracting it. 

Whether or not the economics of your book are sound, you 
certainly have introduced endless testimony and have initiated some 
most interesting and most pertinent queries in regard to the 
present-day national economic lives or civilizations. I mean 
personally to go further in my own thinking along the paths which 
you have opened up and perhaps at a later date, either by letter or 
in person when you get here, I may have something further to say on 
the subject. 

You have certainly accomplished one great thing which 
would more than justify all the time you spent in India which should 
be immensely helpful to India through a better understanding by the 
British and Europeans and Americans of some of the local Indian 
problems. You nave, in other words, made quite clear the economic 
basis and probably the economic soundness ofmany of Gandhi's pro- 
posals on behalf of the Indian masses. 

If I were to make any broad critical comments on the book 
I think there might be two as follows: 



P O BOX 5173 



R. B. Gregg, Esq. 



-2- 



June 28, 1928 



Whereas I can see the usefianess of such a home industry 
as cotton spinning regardless of its very meager money return it 
seems to me that some features of human instinct have been over- 
looked in considering the possibilities of forcing or developing a 
wide adoption of Gandhi's policies. There is not sufficient 
incentive in the idea of hand spinning in the home from a purely 
commercial or practical viewpoint in the face of very direct cost 
disadvantage to overcome or to influence the natural acquisitive- 
ness of commercial instincts or physical inertia of great masses 
of people, A Furthermore, however we may decry the introduction of 
all things/ that are being dumped upon us by the development of 
science a&d applied science here in this modern Western world 
and being dumped upon Europe and Asia as well, it will take more 
than me/fe logic of argument to stem the tide which due to the human 
Th^Hi3i S n™S I h f ve Just mentioned is flowing over modern society. 
The tide cannot be turned hut its forces may be controlled. 

And the second point is that I still cannot figure out, 
and I think you have not proved, that there is so close a comparison 
of efficiency between the hand spinning and power mill spinning 
(1 /to 2 or 3) and between hand weaving and power loom weaving 
(1 to 5 or 10). Both Gandhi and you appear to compare spindle 
with spindle instead of man with man. To my mind there is a tre- 
mendous difference, and a spindle to spindle comparison is to a 
considerable extent unsound economics. 

Cheerio? CheerioJ 

We are off to California and are looking forward with 
the greatest interest to your advent here next December. 

Yours truly, 

P.S. As I read the above since it was typed it gives me the 
impression of two-thirds or three-quarters adverse criticism. I do not 
mean it as such. As stated in one place above, I think you have made 
a very important and helpful contribution to the prospective economic 
life of India. You have advanced some lines of thought which are 
just as pertinent to America as India, perhaps more so. I am simply 
doubtful about some features of Gandhi's and your diagnosis of the 
disease and some of the resulting ingredients of the medicine prescribed. 



A and even though it could be proved that, considering all of the 
economic advantages you have mentioned for hand spinning in India 
versus concentrated power spinning, the resulting khaddar were 
cheaper than mill cloth from either a national or individual view- 
point,- and your argument only asserts or suggests this. It does 
not prove it. 



ECONOMICS OF KHADDAR 

By Richard B. Gregg R s . 1-8/- 

Some Opinions:— 

" Immensely pleased, whole essay exactly 
meets need." 

— C. F. Andrews. 

" I was delighted with it. It is original, 

terse and convincing The sooner now 

the book is published the better. I wish that 
the book will be widely read by the critics." 

— Mahatma Gandhi. 

I have read the book almost from cover to 
cover and I am free to confess that I had 
never before read a more comprehensive, a 
more exhaustive and a more illuminating 
exposition of the economics of K'-oddar in 
one place. In places it soems that the writer 
is indulging in special pleading, bat a careful 
examination of the arguments and facts relied 
upon shows that in fact it is not so. One 
may or may not agree with all of his argu- 
ments but there is no doubt that the writer 
has made a thorough and a careful study of 
the subject in all its aspects and has tried to 
meet all the criticisms that have been direct- 
ed against the khaddar movement, in a spirit 
of fairness and with a knowledge of facts and 
figures which is convincing. — L.ijpat Rai. 



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artistic reality? The problem has to be faced, 
and we would face it with Professor 
Alexander, in his recent lecture on " Artistic 
Creation and Cosmic Creation": — 

I do not first know and then act, I know through 
acting: the object is revealed to me because it 
wrings from me an appropriate action. , . . The 
action is wrung from him (the artist) by the subject- 
matter, through the excitement it produces, in the 
same way as turning his eyes to a colour or sniffing 
an odour by his nostrils is wrung from him through 
the nervous excitement the colour or odour produces 
in the brain. And just as the object known is 
revealed through the ordinary reaction to it, so 
the work of art is revealed to the artist himself 
through the productive act wrung from him in his 
excitement over the subject-matter. 

The fact is. that artists behave in the same 
way in any age, and in the Middle Ages the 
subject-matter was primarily religious, be- 
cause art and religion were not conceived of 
as activities that differed in their final 
ends. There may have been a class 
or profession of artists who had to get 
their living and did so as best they could ; 
but to the medieval theorist the purpose of 
art did not stand separated from the purpose 
of religion, any more than the purpose of 
pliilosophy could be separated from that of 
religion. Yet this unity of purpose could 
only be so long as the human race was in its 
intellectual childhood; for the race grew, and 
the specialist came and separated the pur- 
poses, breaking down the medieval co-ordina- 
tion of the activities of the spirit. This is 
the process which we call the Renaissance. 




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executed. Phone Gutenberg 52- 




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English and American Home Cooking 
Breakfast— Lunch— Tea-Supper 
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ROOKS 



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MARGARET 

Phone : Central H*g 



The Literary Digest for June 30, 1928 



15 




York seemed to A. E 



'A GIGANTIC MASS OF HEAVEN-ASSAILING ARCHITECTURE" 

, who found Chicago hardly less impressive — with a "darker, fiercer, more tumultuous jumble of lofty build- 
," while city after city is "raising man-made cliffs from the American plains." 



AN IRISHMAN'S ADMIRATION FOR AMERICA 

THE SCORN OR COMMISERATION which variously 
streaks the comments of foreign observers on America 
and things American may excite amusement or irrita- 
tion, according to the temper and skill of our critics, but we keep 
right on reading them. Yet when so famous an author as A. E. 
(George Russell) lavishes admiration on our character and our 
achievements, we are a little bit surprized to see ourselves re- 
vealed in a light different from the usual. Having returned to 
Ireland after his recent visit to this country, he sets down his 
impressions in his weekly, The Irish Statesman (Dublin), and 
chief among them was his vision of our "giant architecture," 
meaning our sky-scrapers. He speaks of seeing "a gigantic 
mass of heaven-assailing architecture" as he sailed into New 
York Harbor, which "breaks the sky-line as huge cliffs might do." 
One's heart beats quicker at the sight, he says, such is the sen- 
sation of immense power in the builders of those monstrous 
cliffs of concrete and steel that blaze in the evening light. 
Within the city the impression deepens, and, he continues: 

"There is no end of this giant architecture. Forever new 
comrades rise up beside the elder giants; they tower up in new 
beautiful and wonderful lines. In Manhattan, where they are 
thickest, in the depths below the streets are darkened, and the 
eye grows dizzy looking up searching for a sky. It finds high 
in air great blocks of shadow and light outsoaring Dore or 
Martin, who piled up a fabulous architecture, temple beyond 
temple, in their imagination of Babylon or Nineveh. Here 
high up are spires of burnished copper, where churches have 
been built to crown some huge edifice. At night the highest 
lights seem hardly larger than stars, and one set there without 
knowing where he was might imagine the stars also were points 
of light continuing that aerial architecture, up to infinity. 
What will New York seem after another half century? Already 
it appears the most ancient, ancient of cities, because here alone 
does an actual architecture soar above the dreams imaginative 
artists have conceived of the Towers of Babel. One would 
imagine at night, where a remote light on a topmost story catches 
the eye, that some Chaldean wizard was there calculating horo- 
scopes for Nebuchadnezzar. Chicago is hardly less impressive: 
a darker, fiercer, more tumultuous jumble of lofty buildings, 
and a surging humanity. City after city seems to be going 
their way, raising man-made cliffs from the flat American plains. 
Architecture is the great contemporary American art. The 
civilization is in that first stage where, as Flinders Petrie said 
in his 'Revolutions of Civilization,' there is a mastery over the 
plastic arts, because there is a physical vitality equal to any 
labor. The railway stations, even, are awe-inspiring. Entering 



the Grand Central or Pennsylvania station, one almost feels the 
head should be bared and speech be in whispers, so like do they 
seem in their vastness to temples of the mysteries but for the 
crowds which hurry about their secular business." 

As to the people of the United States, A. E. says he finds it diffi- 
cult to imagine any more kind, and tho haughty to those who 
do not like them, they are lavish in their good- will to all who 
greet them with unaffected liking. It is easy to like them, for 
they are young in their minds, yet because there is youth in 
their nature, he adds, one must not assume that their youth is 
not as competent as the age and experience of the "ancestor 
continent." The evidence of competence lies everywhere about, 
he asserts, and goes on: 

"They were no bunglers who built those great cities, whatever 
graft may have gone to their making. Their education at 
present tends to bring about a high average competence in the 
affairs of life rather than a profound subjectivity. They look 
outward rather than inward. The activity is so tremendous 
that people are called away from central depths to surfaces. 
There they achieve marvelous things and are delighted as chil- 
dren at what they do. They are a little doubtful about it also. 
They ask you what you think, and listen to see whether you have 
an intuition of anything better still which is to come out of them. 
They are continually scrapping works and buildings, because out 
of some inner fountain in their being there are welling up per- 
petually new images which mirror better the secret of their 
own character. They are evolving a beauty and elegance of 
their own. The women have almost standardized good taste 
in dress. It is rare to see a woman who offends the artist's 
sense in color and form. I wish I could commend the art with 
which so many redden their lips with fierce color. Even lovely 
girls yield to this hideous fashion. It is the mass mood of youth 
for the moment. It will probably vanish in another year or two. 
The girls are so naturally, charming that they do not need the 
arts of the demi-mondaine, who must conceal the withering of 
her freshness. They almost all have an intellectual eagerness. 
It yet remains to be seen what this eagerness of American women 
for ideas tends to, what discovery for themselves or for life. 
I feel at present their eagerness is like bubbles under water, 
trying to rise, to come to their own natural air." 

American men A. E. finds to be less effervescent, yet he credits 
them with strong elements of romanticism and idealism, even in 
those powerful masters of industry. All are lavishly generous, 
he thinks, and the reason is that: 

"They have discovered the economic applications of thc^ 
spiritual law which gives to the giver: so that whoever pours 



j.out to others what is in them to give, whatever there is of lovel 
j/or beauty or imagination or intellect, are themselves perpetually I 
j| being fed from within. In the sphere of economics this lavish 
spending of what is earned stimulates consumption and reacts 
on production. The spendthrift nation is the prosperous nation. 
While one notices with delight this instinctive lavishing of what 
is earned, a doubt arises whether the natural resources of the 
country are not being too lavishly squandered also. It is right 
to spend what one earns. But js it right to mine the lands, as 
too many farmers do, taking from the earth its stored-up fertility 
and restoring nothing to it, cutting down the forests, draining 
the oil wells, and in a thousand other ways leaving to their 
children an inheritance of nature somewhat exhausted, as a 
woman by too much childbearing? " 

People speak too often of America as an extension of European 
civilization and culture, A. E. then remarks, and in a superficial 
sense this is true, as it is true that every child must have some 
parents. But just as the child develops a distinct character, 
he adds, so is this new race developing a powerful character of 
its own. Here is the beginning of a civilization where the 
quality that is to dominate and inspire is yet unseen or is notice- 
able in but a few minds, he avers, and proceeds as follows: 

"Great cultures spring like great religions from founders with 
but few disciples, and at first the ideas which later may dominate 
are born in a society where an opposing idea is king. Then 
begins a struggle like that between the beings spoken of by the 
Greek philosopher. 'One lives the other's death. One dies the 
other's life.' What is arising or to arise in the States? I think 
of it as some mood of planetary consciousness. I can not get 
a more precise word. Intuition and reason alike prompt me 
to say this. In the ancient world, where travel was difficult, 
dangerous and expensive, the material basis for such a planetary 
consciousness was not in existence. The cultures of China, 
India, Egypt turned inward and brooded on themselves. Within 
the last century only has a nervous system interlocking the 
planet been evolved. Railway, steamship, cable, wireless, 
swift-evolving air transport, economic international organiza- 
tions: the roar of the planet is in every ear. It is true it sounds 
in European ears also, but it is not the planet they were born 
under. The characters of European and Asiatic were formed in 
elder centuries, and they change but little from their intense 
self-concentration in the new era. Biologically, the American 
people are made up from fiery particles of life jetted from many 
human fountains. The biological ancestors of the people in the 
States are European, Asiatic, African, with some survival of 
the aboriginal American. Nature will find in this multitude the 
materials to blend to make a more complex mentality than any 
known before, with wide-reaching affinities in the subconscious. 
I notice, too, that the writers who form the spiritual germ-cell 
of American culture — Emerson, Whitman, Thoreau, and their 
school — think and write of themselves almost as naturally being 
as children of earth, as being American citizens. That group 
manifest in their writings something like a cosmic consciousness." 

What is more, we are then told, is that American statesmen 
are beginning to formulate world policies, leagues of nations, 
world peace, a sense of duty to the world struggling up through 
the intense self-interest and preoccupation with their own affairs. 
American benevolence is world-wide, A. E. declares, and he cites 
the Rockefeller Foundation as being as benevolent to Japan, 
France, England, Germany, Belgium, or Singapore, as to neigh- 
boring Canada. We read then: 

"I do not say this planetary outlook or consciousness is uni- 
versal. It exists rather in a few minds. The ordinary man 
may not understand, indeed he is first repelled, by the thoughts 
that move the mightier of his kind, but the same elements are 
in his being, and finally he reels after the shepherds who call. 
A planetary consciousness, I surmise, will grow up through cen- 
turies in this astonishing people, warring with its contrary idea, 
which also has its own meaning and just basis. Our human 
faculties are burnished by their struggle with opposites in our- 
selves. And it is no less true of the ideas which become domi- 
nant in great civilizations. I imagine centuries in which in the 
higher minds in the States a noble sense of world duty, a world 
consciousness, will struggle with mass mentality and gradually 
pervade it, to establish there, and in the world, perhaps, the idea 
that all humanity are children of one King." 



THE CABARET CONQUERING IN CHINA 

MORE CAN BE LEARNED in visiting jazz cabarets 
in Shanghai about changing China, we are told, than 
from a hundred of the leading books on the Chinese 
problem. The modern dancing cabaret, where dancing partners 
are provided by the establishment, was introduced into Shanghai, 
it seems, by the White Russians, refugees from their homeland, 
who flocked into the Chinese port cities, and the Shanghai 
China Weekly Review relates that, at one time, there were more 
than one thousand Russian dancing girls in that city. Inci- 
dentally, it is pointed out, they assisted materially in supporting 
the large Russian refugee community, but it appears that the 
Russians' monopoly of the jazz cabarets in Shanghai is passing 
because their Chinese sisters are "cutting in" rapidly. In several 
places, it is noted further, one finds both Russian and Chinese 
girls, and in others Russian, Chinese, and Japanese girl dancers. 
We read then: 

"None of the writers on the Chinese Revolution have as yet 
touched on the passing of that Chinese institution, the 'Sing- 
song girl,' but it is a fact that the attractive young lady who used 
to sit behind your chair at a Chinese banquet and screech in your 
ear to the tune of a scratchy Chinese fiddle, is rapidly passing, 
along with the old-style Northern militarists, the ancient cere- 
monial style of official addresses, the use of long gowns as articles 
of attire for men and women, and the use of trousers as attire for 
Chinese women. Up in Szechuen and down in Kwangsi the 
Sing-song girl is probably still holding her own against the in- 
roads of progress and 'modernization,' but in Shanghai the Sing- 
song girl is in a bad way, and seemingly is on the road to oblivion, 
her place being taken by the modern jazz cabaret entertainer or 
dancing-partner. The thing has come on us rather suddenly; 
in fact so suddenly that comparatively few foreigners in Shanghai 
yet realize that most of the leading Chinese hotels in Shanghai 
in recent months have installed modern ballrooms where the 
latest jazz music is dispensed, and where young China is dancing 
the Charleston, the Black Bottom, and the other near-barbarous 
versions of the dance which America is supposed to have plagiar- 
ized from the African negroes." 

The Sing-song girl, we are further informed, occupied a definite 
place in the Chinese social scheme of things, whether in Mukden 
of Canton, and her chief purpose apparently was to help tired 
business men and officials to forget their worries. But the Sing- 
song girl of to-day, it is said, has almost overnight become a 
jazz-cabaret singer, who wears an abbreviated foreignized style 
of skirt in place of the silk trousers she formerly wore. An 
edict was issued against the wearing of skirts by the late Marshal 
Chang Tso-lin, we are told, and his mandate stated that he had 
been informed that Chinese girls were appearing in the Peking 
Central Park "with nothing on their legs except stockings," 
with the result that: 

• * 

"He ordered off the skirts^nd demanded a return to feminine 
trousers! But despite the*feactionism of the Mukden war- 
lord and others of his type, Young China insists upon modernizing, 
and the jazz cabaret in Shanghai is the result. 

"But most interesting of all is the sight of Chinese, men and 
women, dancing 'modern-fashion' in a modern ballroom to the 
tune of 'modern' or rather American music. Once in a while one 
notes a Chinese wearing a long gown trying to do the modern 
steps, but this is unusual, since most of the Chinese who dance 
wear modern Western tailored clothes with Oxford-bags and 
everything. Recently one of these cabaret places which have 
sprung up in Shanghai like mushrooms of late held a dancing 
competition which was participated in by dancing couples of 
about every known nationality— Russians, Japanese, Europeans, 
and combinations of several Eastern and Western nationalities— 
and the first prize was won by a Chinese couple. The girl wore 
a bright red foreign-style dress with short skirt, flesh-colored 
stockings, silver shoes, low neck, and she had bobbed hair, of 
course. The young man was drest in 'conventional black' 
tuxedo. After the prizes had been distributed and the applause 
had died down, the proprietor of the jazz palace was asked 
who the Chinese young lady was. 'Why, she is Miss So-and-so, 
the popular movie actress.' Yes, China is advancing— or at least 
is changing. The revolution goes deep ! ' ' 



{ 



RUR AL LIFE 

IN DEC IN. 



Dr. Mann's Lecture, 

WhenPatel Washing. 



An interesting lecture was delivered 
at the Hyderabad Branch of the 
Y. M. C A. by Dr. Harold H. Mann, 
Agricultural Advisor to the Nizam's 
Government, on ** Rural Life in the 
Deccan". on Friday July 20 when Sir 
Akbar Hydari presided. 

Br. Mann in the course of his SDeech 
said that speaking from his 2G years* 
intimate contact with the villagers of 
a large part of the Deccan and not 
from a knowledge of books, he had 
observed there Was a terrible distinction 
between people who lived in the country 
and those who lived in towns, so much, 
so that the latte? did not know bow 
the former lived* This was a dangerous 
condition of things which, he said, had 
become more pronounced since the 
British connection which led to an in- 
crease in trade, which he feared would 
ultimately lead to disaster, writes the 
"Times of India" correspondent at 
Secunderabad. 

Dr. Mann then described how village! 
communities were self-contained and! 
independent units from the earliesjp 
times. He aid that he had recently 
perused old records relating to a typical 
Daccan village during the time of the 
Peshwas, dating back to 1696. He 
found that rural conditions in those 
days were what they are at presen 
but that then the community was very 
much more self-contained. With the 
single exception of salt the villages 
produced all their needs. The Patel 
was the king of +he village and when- 
ever a raiding party attacked it and 
threatened to carry away the crops and 
burn the village, the headmen negotiated 
with the raiders and paid them a tribute 
to ward off the threatened disaster. 
Though much of the dignity and inde- 



maintainedl © 

of service 



pendence of village rural life had depart- 
ed nevertheless the village, he stated, < 
|^was still a self-contained Unit and would \ 
I continue to be so whatever political J 
Ichanges might take. v 

AN INDIAN CHARACTERISTIC. 1 

(f The village community 
itself by an interchange 
and not by making money as tow 
people did. The affection of the 
villager for his viliage was so extra 
ordinary, he said, that though he 
should leave his village, and go to a 
big industrial town to work yet he 
considered himself a mere visitor in 
the town, no matter how long he 
stayed away from bis village. In case 
he lost his employment in town, he 
was not as helpless as the town 
I dweller, but retuinsd home to his 
' village where his people somehow 
managed to maintain him, This love 
of the villager for his own village 
! had almost disappeared in England 
development ot large 



with the 
industries. 

I Dr. Mann 
|tion of the 
| village life. 
, tinued had 



then gave a vivid descrip- 
hardships and pleasures of 
Rural lite he further con- 
its problems, for which no 
satisfactory solution has yet been found. 
In the old days the population of a 
village was much smaller than now and 
the land that was available for cultiva- 
tion was sufficient for the whole popu- 
lation. At, present however tne, ordinary 
cultivator who was also a part time 
labourer had a very hard struggle 
in making both ends meet, owing to the 
enhanced value of land due to the advent 
of investors and to fragmentation. 

The real problem in the Deccan, where 
dry crops predominated, consisted of 
finding labourers in the busy season and 
finding employment for labourers during 
the ofi season. The introduction of 
irrigation would solve the problem as it 
would provide work throughout th 
year. In Dr. Mann's opinion the onl© \ 
practicable solution that presented itsely \ 
to him was the development of cottag I 
industries on the old scale so as to make / 
the village again a self-supportinge / 
economic unit. i 

In conclusion Dr. Mann declared thai 
most of his time in India was spent 
among the villagers of the Deccan whom 



* V3 





-at-* 



A NEW COSMOGONY 



Astronomy and Cosmogony. By J. H. Jeans. 
(Cambridge University Press. 31s. 6d. 
net.) 

One of this year's prize compositions at 
Oxford translated a passage from De Quincey's 
" System of the Heavens as revealed by Lord 
Rosse's Telescopes." The great six-foot 
reflector which Lord Rosse completed 
with wonderful engineering skill in 1845 
was not surpassed in size, nor even 
equalled, until the present century was 
well under way ; and its revelations were 
justly the admiration of the world. De 
Quincey starts with some thoughtful reflec- 
tions on the age of the earth, inspired by a 
paper by Kant. He points out that "to tell 
us the posit ice amount of years through which 
our Earth has existed — fifty millions, for ex- 
ample — would leave us in total darkness upon 
Kant's question : namely, What proportion 
does that amount form of the total career 
allotted to this planet ? Is it the thousandth 
part, or the millionth ? " It is thereby clear 
that his expectations of life for our earth far 
exceeded those of the early Christians, for 
example : and in justifying them in the face 
of the pessimism of the time he adduces some 
reasons which read perhaps a little queerly 
to-day : — 

I ask peremptorily Does it stand with good sense, 
is it reasonable, that Earth is Waning, science droop- 
ing, man looking downward, precisely in that epoch 
when, first of all, man's eye is arming itself for 
looking effectively into the mighty depths of space ? 
A new era for the human intellect, upon a path that 
lies amongst its most aspiring, is promised, is in- 
augurated, by Lord Rosse's almost awful telescope. 

It will be seen that it is rather to the existence 
of the telescope than to its performance! that 
De Quincey looks for light on his inquiry as 
to the earth's future. But his essay goes on 
to deal with that performance very skilfully 
and delightfully, and he also summarizes its 
triumphs by imagining the great author of it 
to speak as follows : — 

I found God's universe represented for human 
convenience, even after all the sublime discoveries 
of Herschel, upon a globe or spherical chart having 
a radius of one hundred and fifty feet ; and I left 
it sketched upon a similar chart, keeping exactly 
the same scale of proportions, but now elongating 
the radius into one thousand feet. 

It is not very clear how De Quincey arrived at 
these figures, but let us accept them as indicat- 
ing an expansion of the visible universe in the 
ratio of 1,000 to 150 or about seven to one. 
We may regard the powers of a telescope in 
various ways : the. one here selected ap- 
parently concerns its space-penetrating 
capacity, which is for many reasons just as 
important to increase to-day as it ever was. 
Lord Rosse's six-foot mirror has now been 
surpassed by the Mount Wilson 100 inch; but 
the astronomers who have used tins magnifi- 



cent machine are already hoping for a" 30G 

inch — a mirror twenty-five feet across; and 
they are confident that it can be made and 
used if the necessary couple of million pounds 
can be provided. But if made it would 
scarcely represent so great an advance as De 
Quince}- claims for that of Lord Rosse; its 
advance would be represented more nearly 
by three to one than by seven to one. 

Let us, however, make him a present of tliis 
greater ratio; let us allow him to multiply it 
by ten or even 100, so that it oecomes 700 tc 
one. He might still have been aghast at the 
idea of extending our outlook in the ratic 
of a million to one; and yet we have been 
experiencing an expansion of about that 
order, not only in space but in time, during 
the present century, and chiefly in the last 
decade. Not very long ago we could only 
measure the distances of stars wliich could 
send us messages within a few years; if theii 
light took more than a century to reach us 
they were out of our range. Now -we con- 
fidently point to systems separated from us 
by millions of years, or even hundreds ol 
millions. Again, De Quincey 's speculative 
figure for the past age of the earth is fiftj 
million years; he does indeed suggest multi- 
plying this by a million as regards its future 
but rather to show his contempt for the pessi- 
mists than as a serious estimate. To-day Sii 
James Jeans (and others with him) soberlj 
makes this multiplication both for future and 
past. 

It is to be remarked, however, that these 
vast extensions in space and time are not the 
results of increase in telescopic power : the 
second of them especially lias come by utiliz 
ing the intangible instruments built bj 
mathematicians. The almost incredible 
lengthening of the life of our earth or oui 
sun or a star is due primarily to the theory oi 
relativity developed by Einstein (with the 
help of the geometers), which dictates thai 
what a star radiates is actually lost from its 
own mass. Our own sun, for instance, it 
losing four million tons of himself everj 
second, and yet his size is such that he car 
go on at this spendtluift rate for manj 
millions of millions of years. It might per 
haps be supposed that this extension of oui 
boundaries, both in space and time, woulc 
bring with it a consequent feeling of elatior 
at such marvellous scientific triumphs; bui 
it is at least possible to take another view 
as Sir James Jeans indicates towards the enc 
of his great review : — 

Let us suppose that civilization on our earth i 
10,000 years old. If each planetary system in th< 
universe contains ten planets, and life and civiliza 
tion appear in due course on each, then civilization 
appear in the galactic system at an average rati 
of one per 500 million years. It follows that w« 
should probably have to visit 50,000 galaxie 
before finding a civilization as young as our own 
And as we have only studied cosmogony for son* 



.ji>0 year-. \v< -hould have to search through about ' 
uenty-fiyd million galaxies, if they cxistr before 
BncountcMMng cosmogoni-ts a- primitive as our - 
I Ives. We may well bo the most ignorant > 
; .>.-mogonisls in the whole <>1 -pace. 

But what becomes of the matter thus lost 
i rom the sun and stars ? Not very long ago 
j.e thought that it could only ]»c transferred 

torn place to place ; the conservation of 
bass was regarded as one of the corner-stones 

f physics, another being the. conservation of | 



nergy, and now both these supports have 
een struck away. First we were led to con- 
•raplate the probable interchangeability of 
Lass and energy, and then we have been 
rought face to faee with the absolute; dest rue- 
ion of mass. This revolutionary idea was 
ideed suggested by Sir James Jeans in 1904. 
ut the suggestion was not taken seriously for 
aany years. 
Fifteen years before Perrin had su^^tv-t. ii thai 
ellar energy might originate in tie' formation of 
eavy atoms out of simpler ones. I had pointed out 
in 1904) that an enormous store of energy could i 
e derived out of the total annihilation of matter. 
<>sitnre and negative charges (of the constituent 
lectricities) rushing together and neutralizing and 
o annihilating one another, the resulting energy 
•eing set free as radiation. In 1918 I calculated the 
mount of energy which would thus be set free and 
he length of life which this source of energy allot led 
o the stars. 

That it required some courage to make the 
irst tentative suggestion in 1904 is clear from 
ho length of the interval to the nexl step in 
918. It is only recently that so startling an 
dea lias met with anything but a cold lecep- 
ion. But now it meets friendly laces, and 
Sir James Jeans may be justly proud to have 
ntroduced it to the world. 

So far we have spoken chiefly of the ex- 
ended time-scale; how comes it also that 
we have reached out so far into space ? Here, 
igain, the new instrument that has made it 
possible is not primarily a great telescope, nor 
yet is it a mathematical method : it is the 
outcome of a patient examination of photo- 
graphic plates, made in the first instance by a 
lady. Miss Leavitt. of the Harvard Observa- 
tory, examined and compared a large number 
of plates of one of the Magellanic Clouds, find- 
ing thereby a number of variable star- in the 
("loud, and she noticed that their periods of 
variation went hand in hand with their bright- 
nesses. Tell her how long a particular star took 
to go through its cycle, and she could tell \ ou 
its brightness. As in the case of other great 
discoveries, the full importance of this was 
not realized at first, nor by Miss Leavitt : but 
it soon became clear that the sympathy be- 
tween variation and brightness extended 
t hroughout the universe, wherever stars of this 
type could be found, ami that by making use 
of it the real brightness df such a *>tar could 
be detected, however disguised by distance, 
nay, further, that the disguise itself would tell 
he distance. In tin- wav. when the mant 



reflector of the Mount Wilson Observatory 
detected suc h stars in the Andromeda nebula, 
and found their periods, the distance was in- 
ferred to be a million light-years. The great 
telescope undoubtedly helped in this vast ex- 
tension of our knowledge, and a greater tele- 
scope would help further still; but neither 
would have availed without the primary dis- 
covery of Miss Leavitt. As it is we have foi 
ever abandoned I he imagery which De Quincey ! 
used in postulating a "spherical chart," 
whether of a hundred and fifty feet radius or 
of one thousand feet. The stars now stand out 
in space — space extending so far that then 
light takes hundreds of millions of years to 
reach us; and if the Mount Wilson project 
of building a mirror twenty-five feel in 
diameter is realized, as we hope it may be 
before long, we shall witness a further great 
extension. 

We have scarcely touched the fringe of the 
real problems investigated with remarkable 
skill by Sir James Jeans — he inquires into the 
life history of the stars which are distributee I 
through such a vast volume of space, which 
began their lives so long ago and will endure 
(so far as we can judge) so far into the t ut in c. 
His work has been spread over a quarter of 
a century, and has throughout been that of a 
thoroughly skilful mathematician. He has 
printed the mathematics as credentials for 
those who can test them ; but he has also put 
his results into language which all can read \ 
and enjoy. We have endeavoured rather to 1 
illustrate its importance than to give even a . 
sketch of its content, for which we must retVr 
to the book itself ; there is no need to look at 
the mat hematics if it is unintelligible or re- 
pellent, for there is in the book plenty of 
letterpress which is lucid and attractive - 
and also many beautiful pictures of nebula?. 





1 



C-« 




V^-J2^v Q-w^^ J*JC*-y— ; 



TIL 



< pb^, ^ JLkjLt^Jbi a-— — - — U_ — -JL - 

. — . — — — — -— ~ -~" " -N 



14* 






THE FALLACIES OF THE CHARKHA 



The Economics of Khaddar 

By Mr. Richard B. Gregg (S. Ganesan, 
Triplioane, Madras : Its. 1-8.) 
To discuss the economics of a 
form of employment, without any 

; reference to the psychology of the 
people who are to be employed is 
as futile as to discuss the building 
of an engine without reference to 
tne fuel which will drive' it. Eu\ 
^this is just what Mr. Gregg does. 
It does not require a very great 
acquaintance with rural India to 
be very doubtful if it will be con- 
tent to spin and spin and spin and 
the organisation and energy that 
will be required to convince it tha.t 
its salvation lies in spinning could 

, be put to infinite!} better use in 
teaching it the lessons that really 
would make for better things. 

Hand-spinnin is to be the 
subsidiary occupation of the whole 
of rural India, one of its principal 
recommendations is that it requires 

. a minimum of physical and mental 

t effort — it uses one -tent h of the 
physical strength of its votaries, — 
and it is more important than the 
improvement of agriculture, or any 
of the other steep and narrow ways 
of rural uplift. The better the 
farmer however, the fewer his hours 
of idleness, and the first thing to 
do is^to improve the farming, and 
to teach the farmer and his family 
how to improve their homes and 
villages, and to oring up their 
children properly. 

SOLAR ENERGY. 

This alone will not only double 
the wealth and health, but will re- 
move three-quarters of the present 
idleness of village India. 

Mr. Gregg is inspired with the 
idea of utilising the solar energy 
that is given with such generosity 



I from day to day in India. Every 
I sensible person agrees to this, . ut 
we look in vai- for a single hintf 
in. the book that the charkha is* 
symbolic, and means rural uplift, . 
the full and profitable us e of the 
time and the mind and body of the 
villager for his own betterment^ 
moral, physical and material. No, 
the charkha is literally to be the 
salvation of rural India. 

SELF-CON DEMNED. 

• The arguments in the. book are 
' full, but they are very diffuse and i 
the case is never very clearly o r* 
| concisely put, possibiy because," 
for the charkha alone, there is no 
case and never can be. For in- 
creased rural employment, in whicn 
spinning will of course take the 
place such an occupation merits, 
the case is overwhelming, but the 
monopolising of the spare time of 
! the vihage in , an industry which 
I only u ses one-tenth of its physic al 
i powers , and little more of its 
mental, stands self -condemned. 
■ Until the villager has learnt to 
farm profitably and live healthily, 
l it is foolish to waste our^ efforts in 
I diverting his attent.on to anything 
j else, particularly to such an idle 
form of industry as spinning. 

The charkha is the line of least 
resistance, the refuge of those who 
are not prepared to fight bravely 
the uphill battle of rural uplift, 
"to take arms against a sea of 
trouble, and by opposing, end 
i them". He must indeed be an 
i optimist who hopes to regenerate 
rural India by this spineless 
method, and he must be purblind 
to the facts of human nature who 
thinks that the villages will follow 
him into the limbo of the charkha. 



JU 



UPLIFT OF THE MASSES 



THE PLACE OF KHADI 

Tu The Editor of ''The Chronicle." 
Sir,— In his speech at Matunga on the 
21&J May, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru cont- 
ained that the Congress had not yet 
formulated any economic programme for 
the benefit of the masses without whose 
support India cannot either obtain free- 
dom or after getting retain iU It is rather 
curious that one who has been on the 
Congress Executive oif and on for the last 
six years should make such a complaint 
in 1928. Throughout his speech there was 
no reference to the Khadi element and 
the real work that is being done for the 
same objective as the Pandit has when lie 
refers to an economic programme for the 
masse*. Of late we do hear much of 
mass movements, the interest' of the 
masses, the oppression of the poor by the 
rich and so on. People in the city have 
heard of the Workers and Peasants' Party 
whose record of work seems to be nil if 
real constructive work is taken into ac- 
count. The present-day leaders who speak 
of mass movements know only to move in 
the half a dozen cities of India and make 
speeches before big Labour audiences. 
They care more for publicity than for real 
work of organisation. It is a pity that 
thiese leaders including Pandit Jawaharlal 
have ignored the real mass work that is 
being done by the only institution in the 
country, the AMnjlia Spinners' Asso- 
ciation. It is universally agreed that true 
India lies in t li : - villages and not u single 
of the so-called leaders who speak of 
mass movements, day in and day out has 
erer cared to organise even a single vil- 
lage and hud food for the starving agri- 
culturists. Therein lies the difference be- 
tween a Khadi worker and a city leader of 
Labour. Mahal ina Gandhi is the only 
leader who does any real work in this con- 
nection and yet neither the Workers and 
Peasants' Party nor the Labour headers 
realise the extent of t ho work done by the 
A« L S. A. to uplift the masses. ,-hat 
better alternative is, there to rouse the 
Indian agriculturist and farm-labourer than 



the Khadi programme : Tlue problem in 

the villages is one of semi -starvation and 
becoming unconscious victims of drink. 
Unless any sustained Village work is car- 
ried out by workers of character and grit, 
these evils cannot be eliminated. Mr. 
Richard (i re^a-'s hook on the Economics^o fc. 

and 



Char 



ha has been highly spoken 



ffie latest (Testimony to i'Jie merits of the 
Charkha programme comes from Lala Laj 
patrai who in the last issne of his 
' 'People' ' summarises the salient point 
and axlds his personal approbation of the 
truth that the best cure for mass unem 
ployment lies iu Charkha, that the Khadi 
worker in the village is best! fitted to tackle 
the other crying problems of village life j 
such as sanitation, medical help, temper- 
ance, and so on. The potential resources 
of this programme are appreciated by 
many in the country and yet there arc 
people who not only ridicule this very pro- 
gramme but even oppose the boycott of 
foreign cloth lest the irternational soli- 
darity of the Trade Union Movement be 
affected by any such action in India. It 
may be .worthwhile to re-call in this con- 
nection what Mr. Shapurji Saklatvala said 
during his lecturing tour in India recently. 

!He declared that the Labour movement in 
India should keep aloof from the boycott 
of foreign cloth since it would bring about 
the denial of milk to the children and 
food for the women of Lancashire. It 
will be interesting to know it any of the-e 
city leaders can go into the viragos and 
produce even a quarter of the results 
that the Khadi workers under the A. 1. S. 
A. have been able to product- during the 
last four years. All the while the leaders 
cry from the city pat forms — a very easy 
job — the bumble Khadi worker in the 
remote villages;— villages sJonle of which 
are even 20 to 30 miles away from the 
nearest railway station— is doing the real 
work of emancipating the Indian agricul- 
turist and making him stand on his own 
instead of borrowed feather>. What let- 



ter programme for the masses can the 
) Congress give than the Khadi one under 
i existing disabilities which poor 
[India is suffering from .' Perhaps the or- 
ganisation of the city labour for which 



Ithore are facilities may give some cheap 
notoriety and feme to their so-called lead- 
ers but the real work will be stall undone 
if the villages are ignored as' is bein<* 
done by the present labour leaders. Will 
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru give tbo r-oimirv 
an alternative programme under existing 
disabilities for improving the lot of our 
village masses and for organising them or 
Will he continue deploring the a hsence of 
the formulation of any programme bv ll-o 
Congress for the purpose? If it is the 
absence of any such programme which 
prevents the masses from coming into the 
told of, the Congress, it is upt^him to 
remedy that, now that he is free from rf, e 
A!,-Parties' Conferenee which, has ap- 
pointed a small committee for framing 1 
constitution. Bu« as he himself pointed 
out m the same speech in another con- 
nection,Jhe real need now is workers 
more workers, who will undertake un- 
ostentatious but real work in the villages. 
The only workers that the countrv ha* 
now are m the A. I. ». A.-Yours, He 
A CONGRESSMAN. 

Bombay, May 23. 



rHE TIMES OF INDIA 



HAPPINESS OF INDIAN 
VILLAGE LIFE. 

MANN'S LECTURE. 



DR. 



(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT) . 

SECUNDERABAD, July 20. 

< aA^^^ 6 ?* 11 ^ le cture was delivered 
'YM % Hy der ^ad Branch of the 
A^?,; A - , by Dr - Har old H. Mann, 
Agricultural Advisor to the Nizam's 

&? en *' * " Rural in the 

Akh£ w P n . Frida y- July 20 when Sir 
Akbar Hydan presided. 

^i/'^f m in the c °urse of his speech 
n a f m ^ at speaking from his 20 years' 
r ^nt mate contact with the villagers of 
?mm » P art ,° f the ^eccan and not 
obTr^L ^ owled ^e of books, he had 
bPtwit ther , e Was a terrible distinction 
ard P60I L le ^ ho lived in ^e country 
Si t£5? e ^ Wh ? hved in towns, so much 
3L £ th t latter did n °t know how 
condH,w r l^S This was a d angerous 
condition of things which he said had 



become more pronounced since " the 
British connection which led to an in- 
crease in trade, which he feared would 
ultimately lead to disaster. 

Dr. Mann then described how village 
communities were self-contained and 
independent unites from the earliest 
times. He said that he had recently 
persued old records relating to a typical 
Deccan village during the time of the 
Peshwas, dating back to 1696. He found 
that rural conditions in those days were 
what they are at present but that then 
the community was very much more self- 
contained. With the sing-le exception of 
salt the villages produced all their needs. 
The patel was the king of the village 
and whenever a raiding party attacked 
it and threatened to carry away the 
crops and burn the village the headmen 
negotiated with the raiders and paid 
them a tribute to ward off the threaten- 
ed disaster. Though much of the 
dignity and independence of village 
rural life had departed never- 
theless the village, he stated, was still 
a. self-contained unit and - would con- 
tinue to be so whatever political changes 
might take place. 

AN INDIAN CHARACTERISTIC. 

The village community maintained 
itself by an interchange of services and 
not by making money as town people 
did. The aifection of the villager for 
his village was so extraordinary he said 
that though he should leave his villag-e 
and go to a big industrial town to work 
yet he considered himself a mere visitor 
in the town no matter how long he 
stayed away from his village. In case 
he lost his employment in town, he was 
not as helpless as the town dweller but 
returned home to his village where his 
people somehow managed to maintain 
him. This love of the villager for his 
own village had almost disappeared m 
England with the development of large 
industries. 

Dr. Mann then gave a vivid descrip- 
tion of the hardships and pleasures of 
village life. Rural life he further con- 
tinued had its problems for which no 
satisfactory solution has yet been found 
In the old days the population of s. 
village was much smaller than now and 
the land that was available for cultiva- 
tion was sufficient for the whole popu- 
lation. At present however, the ordinary 
cultivator who was also a part time 
labourer had a very hard struggle 
in making both ends meet owing to the 
enhanced value of land due to the advent 
of investors and to fragmentation. 

The real problem in the Deccan where 
dry crops predominated consisted o'. ! 
finding labourers in the busy season and 
finding employment for labourers during 
the off season. The introduction ox 
irrigation would solve the problem as it 
would provide work throughout the 
year. In Dr. Mann's opinion the only 
practicable solution that presented itself 
to him was the development of cottage 
industries on the old scale so as to make 
the village again a self-supporting 
economic unit./' 

In conclusion Dr. Mann declared that 
most of his time in India was spent 
among the villagers of the Deccan whom 
he found to be honest and kindhearted 



n a simple way la whoso comj^any oe 
ilways ft It that he was amongst men. 

Sir Akbar Hydari after thanking Dr 
vlann for his lecture said that he him- 
self had given some thought to village 
problems but he thought that it wa; 
lot possible to restore to villages th- 
solation of days gone by, which as Di 
Uann had said* contributed to theb 
>ld economic happiness. He said tha 
hey should strive to extend to thi 
•/hole country that spirit of brotherhoc 
vhich knit together all the members oi 
i village community and try to mak; 
ho whole country like the old tin: 
•illage which Dr. Mann had pictured 
o them. 



c. f. °> — *- 







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^ e£ ^r. 

ar • 



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Exports of cotton piecegoods to 
British India from the United Kingdom 
in May revealed a veritable slump of 
77 million square yards as compared 
with May 1927. For the five months 
ending May 1928 the total quantity of 
exports amounted to C90.8 million square 
yards or 66 7 million square yards less 
thau the corresponding period last year. 
The following details of exports to Cal- 
cutta in May show the enormous re- 
duction in greys, whites, prints, and 
dyed goods, as compared with May 1927, 
the 1928 figures being roughly only one- 
seventh of those for 1927. 

SQTJAEE YAEDS (OOO'S OMITTED). 



* 1927. 1928. 

^reys 76.9S7 7,225 

White '.'.*. 14,821 3,500 

Prints 2,200 1,054 

Dyed arid Col. 4.12S 2,870 



Total ... 98,136 



14,649 



Books by Prof. T. L. Vasvani. 





Rs. 


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The Jaina Gazette Office, 

IS, Kalmantapam Road, 

Royapuram, MADRAS. 



y^^Ji. . ^ ^ J, 



Lo ! Another Spengler ! 

J HAT dilemmas have horns is a 
rhetorical commonplace. But never, 
perhaps, were the horns sharper than 
those in The W hite Man's Dilemma 
(John Day, £2.50) by Nathaniel PefTer. 
The subtitle states that the book is ' : A 
Study of the Climax of the Age of Im- 
perialism." Mr. Peffer's book thus ob- 
viously belongs in that large and rapidly 
expanding series of volumes dealing with 
what, for the sake of convenience, we may 
briefly term the contemporary crisis be- 
tween East and West — a crisis which has 
been clearly evident since the late War 
and which grows steadily more acute as 
time goes on. 

That most of these volumes should 
sound a warning, even an alarmist, note is 
at once inevitable and salutary, for the 
dangers in the present situation are very 
real and disastrous consequences are far 
from remote. Mr. PefTer certainly paints a 
dark picture and castigates Western 
imperialism in no uncertain terms. But 
other writers have done this just as 
emphatically. Wherein, then, does his 
volume differ from most of its fellows? 

It differs in two respects: (1) in the 
depth of his pessimism, and (2) in his 
general low esteem of that Western civili- 
zation of which he is himself a product. 
Let us consider these two aspects and 
appraise their significance. 

Mr. Peffer begins his book by asking the 
somewhat devastating question whether 
human beings can ever really learn any- 
thing from anything. And since he there- 
upon goes on to say that past history 
shows men almost never do thus learn, it 
requires a robust optimism to hope that 
any pointing out of impending perils will 
make men so change their actions as to 
avert them. 

Indeed, Mr. Peffer refuses us the luxury 
of even so tenuous a hope, for his hard 
gospel is little more than a choice of evils. 



Most prophets of woe intimate that if we 
will but turn from our wicked ways, we 
shall be richly rewarded. Not so Mr. 
Peffer. According to him, continued 
Western world supremacy spells in the 
near future a super-Armageddon which 
would wreck the planet. Yet, on the other 
hand, even the immediate and wholesale 
renunciation of world supremacy will 
mean for the Western nations of Europe 
and America internal readjustments so 
acute as to imply the disruption of our 
present economic order. Cut loose forth- 
with from your holdings in Asia, Africa, 
and the Latin-American tropics, says Air. 
Peffer, and you may save your lives and 
your homes. But the emancipated Asiat- 
ics, Africans, and Latin-Americans will 
promptly squander or confiscate all the 
billions you have invested among them, 
will be unable or unwilling to continue the 
development of their natural resources, 
and so will no longer furnish the trade and 
raw materials which alone make Western 
industrial civilization a going concern. 

Furthermore, this dilemma is inex- 
orable. Compromise is no longer possible, 
because the "subject races" have become 
so inflamed against you that they would 
not listen to argument even though the 
West should suddenly turn to leaders of 
superlative tact and wisdom, instead of 
(as at present) blindly following the be- 
hests of hard-boiled capitalists and pur- 
blind bourgeois. Such is the iron logic of 
Mr. Peffer. In short: you'll be damned if 
you do, and you'll be damned if you don't; 
the only difference being that you'll be 
damned somewhat deeper if you don't do 
as he suggests. 

Yet even this is not the whole story. For 
on top of his pessimism as to the probable 
future of W r estern civilization, Mr. Peffer 
tosses the still more devastating doubt as to 
whether Western civilization is in any real 
sense worth saving. And here again Mr. 
Peffer's strictures are of the most thor- 
oughgoing character. According to him, 



Readers may order through The Forum any books meii$$ned in this issue of the magazine, 
or obtain through it information regarding ^current literary publications. Address Forum 
. Book Service, 4.4.1 Lexington Avenue, N0i York Cfty. \ 




the only two noteworthy things about the 
West are its music and its plumbing. He is 
noncommittal about the music, but he 
asserts that the importance of our plumb- 
ing has been grossly exaggerated. To be 
sure, he admits a personal weakness for 
cleanliness and sanitation — having been 
raised that way. 

He is also under no illusions about the 
East, and frankly depicts its filth, stench, 
disease, overcrowding, and wholesale 
semi-starvation. Yet he refuses to "over- 
dignify" cleanliness. "I myself," he says, 
"do not even rate it as a good. I believe it 
to be something apart from the cultural, 
moral and social values." In fact, he goes 
on to ask: "Whether too much cannot be 
paid for comfort, cleanliness and health?" 
He plainly intimates that these blessings, 
together with others like progress and 
efficiency, being all part and parcel of our 
machine civilization, are not worth the 
price exacted by the machine, and he 
believes that the average Chinese or 
Hindu peasant gets more real happiness 

out of life than do the prosperous denizens ~ 1 1 ~ 

<>f Main Street and Gopher Prairie. Where- n1 l f% ColBJQ^ ^ f o 

fore he utters the obviously wishful 

thought that the East may produce * 1 ^ m 

enough Gandhis to put over a successful — «. . — J^-^ "~* 

campaign rejecting the West and all its 
works. Since Gandhi scathingly denounces 
even such Western innovations as hospi- 
tals and preventive medicine, we can see j\ ^ 

thoroughly Mr. Peffer sympathizes 1 — ? 

with the "unreconstructed" Oriental v M C q • 

point of view. <^*~v*^JST °* rf^^^-v 

The aspects which we have discussed 
are the things which make Mr. PefTer's ^ ^-e-^— i/*-**-**. ->~£-*-fL^ 



book stand out among the critical litera 
ture of our times. They are the things 
which make the book stimulating reading. 
But they are likewise the things which 
should make the intelligent reader rec- 
ognize the book for what it is — an 
extreme statement of the case. 

Lotiirop Stoddard 




tfc* N.T. 





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Afternoon Round table discussion 
Evening Summary of the institute, 
by 

READING LIST 

Robinson, James Harvey 
Dewey, John 

Sheffield, Alfred D. 

(Pub. by the Workers' Education Bureau 
Lippmann, Walter 
Lippmann, Water 
Angell, Norman 
Hapgood, Norman 




American Academy of Political and Social Science 
March, 1928. Progress in the law. 
ett, Mary P. 



Experience meeting led 
Mrs. Mary B. Edgerly 

Mind in the making r\ 

How we think f^^AA6UA> 

Joining in public discussion ^tr^^ -0 
424 W. 24th St., N. Y.) QQ 
Public opinion 
The phantom public 
The public mind 
Professional patriots 
Annals for 



Creative experience 



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oJUJC^JZ 



ECONOMICS OF KHADDAR-by Richard 
lb Bkegg, published by G. Ganeshan, publishers 
I adras, pp. 226, Price Rs. 1-8-0. 

This book, in the words of its very learned 
in addition to being a consideration of the 

jnomic validity of Mr Gandhi^ „^ 

Lfix, u-anani s programme, and 



of an Indian renaissance; 
ission of "a special instance 



f one possible aspect 
2hj be regarded as a di 
f the economic validity of all handicraft work versus 
<>wer machine industry, or a& a discussion of un 

mployment prevention and relief or as a 

-ugmeutary and tentative investigation of part of 
le problem of the limitation or balance use of power 
ad machinary in order to secuie a fine and enduring 
viliiation." And indeed, the book is a masterpiece 
mong the best economical treaties, in as much as the 
ibject of the book is as vast and as useful to a nation 
I itb very existence i ; self. The conception and 
Ian of the book may be said to rank high among 
tie most original works. This book is a masterly 
sseareh into a most complicated and much discussed 
rublem of Khaddar. The author is an American 
jfeolar who undertook the investigation primarily to 
Iarify his own thinking. To all who disbelieve in 
ae efficacy of the Charkha movement his opinion 
r oakl be more convincing, coming as it does from an 
mp4rtial umpire who himself belongs to the sphere 
f the West. To those who view Charkha and handloom 
lightingly he says : — 

"We do not wholly think Charkha as a 
aachine, but it really is so. It uses the available 
v nechanical energy of a man, woman or child for 
*• ■..hieing material goods. The handloom does Iike- 
riae, That mechanical energy is derived from the 
ood eaten by the people. Though in a different 
iigree, manner or mode r the process is the same 
i that occuring in steam engine or hydraulic power 
)laut,— namely, the transformation of solar energy into 
nt'chanical motion." 



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s^JL — A^tx ■ a s v v 

I Mr. C. F. ANDREWS.^[\ ^ ^ 

The United Church Herald writes :— Mr. C. F. 
Andrews m the little monthly paper 4< The 
Fellowship" is beginning in a series of articles to 
examine a question of personal interest to himself, 
which is also of vital consequence to all Christian 
people. He tells us that he has often been asked 
whether during his life he has come to see religion 
and the Christian faith in particular, in any differ- 
ent way from before. We know something of the 
outward changes in Mr. Andrews' life. We have 
seen how he felt it necessary to sever his connection 
with a missionary society. 

Later on he gave up his orders in the Church of 
England. He came to throw in his lot with the 
great Brahmo Poet of Bengal. Some of the most 
ardent Hindus do not hesitate to regard Mr. Andrews 
as almost one of themselves. All these outward 
things in Mr. Andrews' life we have been able to 
watch. The question which has again and again 
been asked by Christian people about this amazing 
career is this; Has Mr. Andrews abandoned any 
essential thing in Christianity? Now in these articles 
he is setting out to reveal to us what he thinks we 
ought to know of the inner change which has been 
going on in his attitude towards his religions beliefs. 

Whatever one may think about Mr. Andrews, no one 
can deny that here we have a man who has 
constantly striven to follow the light he had, at 
whatever cost, and wherever it might lead, and that 
he has allowed no conventional ideas to hinder him. 
Mr. Andrews quotes with deep approval some words 
spoken by one in the Cambridge Brotherhood at 
Delhi shortly before his death, "If I had my life in 
India to live over again and start afresh, I should 
seek, to bind together those who truly believed in 
God and wished to live according to the dictates of 
conscience. For the forces of materialism are so 
strong today that it is the fundamental belief in God 

which needs preserving just as in the Christian 

church one denomination is fighting against another, 




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THE PROBLEM OF CHINA. 

Letter dated March 17, 1928 to a Chinese Student 

From An American Philosopher* 
Your letter moves me greatly, for I feel at once 
ur great need of encouragement and help and ray 
m inability to be of assistance. Your problems 
e severe beyond the help of words, and it is with 
eatest hesitancy that I venture to express even an 
inion where ray own ignorance is so great. Never- 
oless, because you know that I am deeply interested 
your welfare, I cannot but tell you genuinely how 
3eem to see what may be before you. Perhaps the 
ct that 1 see the problem objectively will in some 
anion aid our mutual vision, 

First, about China. I think there can be no 
mbt but that the next century in the world's 
story will belong to three or four great peoples, 
tiree of these, I believe, are to be China, Russia 
id the United States. Each of these countries is 
perimenting with social and cultural problems ; 
ch also with a certain similarity of motive to which 
>u should not be blind because of what you see — 
ad I mean by this the moral motive. The old 
thilosophy of China, as you will remember we said 
n our seminar (it was ours, you know, not just mine) 
fas a moral philosophy ; and Russian Literature, 
lolstoy and the rest, represent a moral ideal also, 
it moral conviction even in the midst of its lack of 
|uiet ; and finally, if you look at America we, too, 
,re thinking even more in moral than in mechanical 
jgrms, even while we are trying ( absurdly ) to 
mechanize our moral training. I think that all 
iaree civilizations have .the same type of problem, 
,nd that they will stand out in the world because of 
jhis as well as because of their physical and territo- 
jial greatness 

But it seems to me also clear that neither of these 
hree countries can become first of all a teacher to 
he others — for the reason that all are unsettled and 
ire seeking to resolve their own quite different 
)roblems. I do not think that Chinese should try 
;o copy either Russia or America — nor to learn too 
nuch (or perhaps I should say too externally) from 
;he experiments of these other countries. The 
Chinese problem is different. Both Russia and 



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All's Wrong to Wells 



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From The World's Bureau 

LONDON. — H. G. Wells delivers the negative side"" 
of his gospel in what he calls "an outbreak of auto- 
obituary." In the last chapter of his new book, 
"A Year of Prophesying," one lament runs: 

"I am against the clothes we wear, and the food 
we eat, the houses we live in, the schools we have, 
our amusements, our money, our ways of trading, 
our ways of making, our compromises arid agree- 
ments and laws, our articles of political association, 
the British Empire, the American Constitution. 

."I think most of the clqthes ugly and dirty, most 
of the food bad, the houses wretched, the schools 
starved and feeble, the amusements dull, the mone- 
tary methods silly, our ways of trading base and 
wasteful, our methods of production piecemeal and 
wasteful, our political arrangements solemnly idiotic. 
Most of my activities have been to get my soul and 
something of my body out of the customs, outlook, 
boredoms and contaminations of the curr««4 --Dimse 





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